Compost Adventures - Organic Materials Utilization for Construction Activities that Protect US Waters

Dwayne Stenlund, MSc., CPESC, CPRM
2007-09-13
Minnesota Department of Transportation

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Compost Adventures

Organic Materials Utilization for Construction Activities that Protect US Waters

  

Using Compost to Improve Stormwater Management & Erosion Control on Roadsides

Roundtable & Living Field Demonstrations

Retzer Nature Center, Waukesha WI EPA Region 5

September 13, 2007

Dwayne Stenlund, MSc., CPESC, CPRM Minnesota Department of Transportation

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Outline

  • History, MnDOT Utilization
  • Specifications/Project & CADD Details, State Statutes

–      MNDOT 3890

–      State Statute 7035

  • Projects
  • Future Needs

 

MnDOT History

  • Standard Specifications for Construction

–      1988: 1st occurrence in Spec book

  • 1991: Supplement January 2
  • 1994: Supplement May 2

– 1995:

–      1996: Assigned to solve compost problems

– 2000:

–      2005: Current

 

1988

  • 3890 Established two Grade Types

–      Grade 1: use in turf establishment, nutrient rich type derived from the decomposition of poultry or animal manures with a texture similar to a highly organic soil.

  • Min/Max of: Moisture content, CN ratio, TN, Available P, Soluble K

–      Grade 2: use in landscape planting medium, humus rich type derived from the decomposition of leaves and yard wastes or animal and poultry manure with a texture similar to shredded peat

  • Max of moisture content, CN ratio, pH

–      Testing by U of M for P, K, Kjeldahl N, ASTM D2016 oven drying method

 

1991 supplement

  • Required aerobic decomposition, with lack of odor or heat generation, no pathogenic bacteria or weed seeds and free of plastic debris, stones, sand, glass, and other extraneous matter.
  • Will not accept sewage sludge
    • Must be registered for sale with the Dept of Agriculture and meet MPCA requirements for contaminates.
    • Defined ammonium N and soluble salts in Grade 2 compost
    • Allowed the right to bioassay test material
    • Required the contractor to submit source of material 30 days prior to delivery
    • Required certificate of compliance as per 1603

 

1994 supplement

  • Required compost to be delivered in an air-dried condition
  • Allowed commercial fortification of Grade 1 to meet nutrient specifications
  • No longer allowed manure or animal wastes in Grade 2
  • Certified test results to both Project Engineer and Agricultural Engineer (Office of Environmental Services)

 

1995

  • Moisture content by mass
  • pp. 989-991

 

2000

  • Aerobic decomposition of organic wastes
  • Define end point composting process

–          Loss on ignition

–          Solvita test

–          No smell, reheating, identifiable materials

–          PFRP

–          Process verify fecal coliform, salmonella spp.

  • Allow up to 3% ‘foreign’ particles
  • Biosolids acceptable under certain conditions
    • Identifies State Statutes 7035/7045 and Federal Regulations Title 40, section 503 requirements (metals, Hg, hazardous wastes), soils reference values (hazard index, quotients, cancer risk levels)
    • No pesticides levels that affect plants and animals existing in soils
      • At time of delivery, must be in a condition safe for human exposure to dusts during handling
      • Material requirements: OM, CN ratios, NPK ratios, pH, moisture, BD, inerts, soluble salts, germination tests, screened particle size, contaminates
      • Added Grade 3
      • Established an approved Vendor List
      • Equivalent testing procedures of the U of M

 

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2005 Details

  • 2571 Plant Installation
  • 2573 Storm Water Management
  • 3890 Compost Material
  • 3897 Filter Log, Type Compost

–         Filter Log, Type Wood Chip

–         Filter Log, Type Metal Trap

 

  • Special Provisions

–        Designer Soils

  • Raingardens (10-20%)
  • Wetlands (100%)
  • Planting cells (33%)
  • Rooting soils (50%)
  • RSS wall fills (variable)

–        Erosion control

  • Blankets
  • Grouts

–        Storm Water Quality

  • Diversion Berms,
  • Filter logs
  • Retrofitting

Log/bag Walls

 

(2105) TOPSOIL BORROW - MODIFIED

  • A blend of three products

S-26           This work consists of placing and cultivating topsoil in accordance the appropriate Mn/DOT Standard Specifications, the Plans, and the following:

S-26.1         Topsoil Borrow-Modified (LV) shall consist of a mixture of 1/3 Premium Topsoil Borrow adhering to the requirements Mn/DOT 3877.2C and 1/3 Grade 2 Compost adhering to the requirements of Mn/DOT 3890 and 1/3 Sand adhering to the requirements of Mn/DOT 3149.2(k), blended on a volume basis. The mixture must be blended before being spread on the worksite. A sample shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before the material is brought to the worksite.

S-26.2        Unload and store all materials in a manner so as to protect until placed.

S-26.3         Place six inches (6”) of soil and deep cultivate into the existing subgrade to a minimum of 300 mm (12 inches).    Operations shall not result in soil compaction due to excessively wet soil conditions (field capacity or wetter) or improper methods. To minimize soil compaction, the Contractor shall use a spading machine to loosen and till the soil.

S-26.4        METHOD OF MEASUREMENT AND BASIS OF PAYMENT

The select topsoil borrow modified will be measured by the Cubic Yard (LV) of soil furnished and installed as specified, and measured by loose volume. Payment will be made under Item 2105.607 (Topsoil Borrow Modified (LV)) at the Contract Bid Price per cubic yard (LV), which will be compensation in full for delivering, placing, and all costs involved.

 

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3897Filter Logs

3897.1   SCOPE

This specification covers filter logs used for slowing and filtering storm water runoff, and other water encountered on the Project.

3897.2   REQUIREMENTS

Filter logs shall conform to the requirements of the following types, as specified in the Contract.

C           Type Compost Log

Compost Log shall consist of a blend of 30-40% weed free compost as per 3890 Grade 2 and 60-70% partially decomposed wood chips. The compost/wood blend material shall pass a 51 mm (2 inches) sieve with a minimum of 70% retained on the 10 mm (3/8 inch) sieve, in accordance with TMECC 02.02-B, "Sample Sieving for Aggregate Size Classification". The compost/wood chip blend shall be pneumatically shot into a geotextile cylindrical bag. The geotextile bag shall consist of a knitted material with openings of 10 mm (3/8 inches) and contain the compost/wood chip material while not limiting water infiltration. The encased compost shall form a cylindrical log that is a maximum of 55 m (180 feet) and approximately 200 mm (8 inches) in diameter.

 

2573.540 Filter Log, Type (1)                                      meter (linear foot)

 

S-xxx   (2575) Compost Grouting

This work shall consist of furnishing and injecting a water permeable compost erosion control system into riprap to remove soil particles from water moving off site into adjacent waterways or storm water drainage systems and to facilitate the establishment of vegetative cover in accordance with the applicable Mn/DOT Standard Specifications and the following:

------------------------------------------------------ S-xxx.2 INSTALLATION

Compost used for grouting shall be pneumatically applied with blower equipment in a non-compacted layer to fill voids of riprap, fractured bedrock or other hard armor to a minimum of 2 inches depth, or as directed by the Project Engineer.

 

Compost Grout application for erosion control will be integrated with a sediment control program, and may be applied in concert with Compost Logs or other sediment control methods shown in the plan. The Compost Grout may be used to blend in the riprap or compost log edges to the existing slope grade. Approximately three quarters of the riprap void depth shall have the

fertilizer application, with the remaining one-forth topdress lift to have the seed, at rates per acre indicated in the plan.

 

Compost Grout Cont.

Contractor will supply ample evidence showing this amount of material has been effectively placed (i.e., truck load tickets).

 

Contractor is required to be a certified Filtrexx Installer as determined by Filtrexx International, LLC (440-926-8041). Certification shall be considered current if appropriate identification is shown during time of bid or at time of application.

The following contractors are considered certified installers:

Windscapes Express blower Service, Dave Johnson 651-455-3993 Valley Creek, Wendi Bertelson 651-458-0778

Quickscapes, Pete Ven Housen 262-742-2006 MnLand, Mark Jefferies 952-446-1740

 

S-xxx.3 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

Compost Grouting will be measured by the area furnished and acceptably installed. Payment will be made under Item 2575.604 (Compost Grouting) at the Contract bid price per square meter [square yard], which shall be compensation in full for all labor, materials, equipment and other incidentals necessary to complete the work as specified, including the cost of maintenance if specified in the plan.

The provisions of Mn/DOT 1903 are modified to the extent that the Department will not make a price adjustment in the event of increased or decreased quantities.

 

Testing Reality

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Table 2. Example Compost Blanket Depths for Various Rainfall Rates

 

 

Annual Rainfall/ Flow Rate

 

Total Precipitation (Rainfall Erosivity Index)

 

Compost Blanket Depth (Vegetated Surface)

 

Compost Blanket Depth (Unvegetated Surface)

 

Low

 

1 – 25 in.

(20 – 90)

 

  • • – ¾ in. (12.5 – 19 mm)

 

1 in. – 1½ in. (25

– 37.5 mm)

 

Average

26 – 50 in.

(91 – 200)

¾ – 1 in. (19 – 25

mm)

1½ in – 2 in. (37 – 50 mm)

 

High

>51 in.

(>201)

1 – 2 in. (25 – 50

mm)

2 – 4 in. (50 –

100 mm)

 

 

Alexander, 2003

 

Erosion Control Compost Blanket

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Planting Bed Control

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Slope Control

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Rock Log Compost Log

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Culvert End Protection

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Compost Gabion

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Organics and Chemical Amendment Utilization

  • Slash Mulches and Fugitive Dust Control
  • Specialty products for storm water flow control
  • Muck salvage
  • Life-blood for Sod

 

Slash Mulch w/ Gorilla-Snot®

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Raingarden Mulch

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Dewatering Filtration

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Metal Trap Log

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Concrete Floc Log

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Muck Salvage

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Sidewalk Sodding?

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Selected Project Examples

  • TH 61, Erosion Control & Storm Water Quality Program
  • TH13 Steep slope restoration
  • TH316 Shoulder repairs
  • TH3 Rooting soils, native plant community
  • Cottage Grove Park & Ride Rain Gardens
  • TH36 Wetland Mitigation Construction
  • Landscape rooting soils

Storm Water Retrofits

 

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Silver Creek Cliff Trail Project

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July 13, 2006

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Fall 2006 TH13 Slope Failure Reconstruction

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May 11 2007 Installation

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May 17

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May 25, really, really rained

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TH41 Bridge Reconstruction

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TH100 Construction

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TH316 Shoulder Repairs

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TH494 Rill Repairs

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Th55-3, and more steep slopes

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I35E Lexington Ave Bridge

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TH7 St Bonifacius

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TH494 Bailey Avenue Bridge

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TH61 North Shore

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TH36 Bayport Wetland Construction

  • Weed free start
  • Five year maintenance plan
  • No funding
  • Must meet function and value

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Retrofit Opportunities

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Compost Retrofit Sponges

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Stormwater Retrofit 1

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Retrofit 2: Sag Point Sediment Capture

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Bass Creek Stormwater Quality Retrofit

  • Compost diversion chevrons
  • Compost filter blankets

Compost filter berms

 

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Compost Logs or Bags

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Landscape Compost

  • 2 to 6 inches surface applied, incorporated into12 inch original soil depth, minimum 6 ft diameter for trees, whole bed for shrubs
  • Spading Machine required for incorporation

 

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Stormwater Landscaping

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Median Planting Details

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Rainwater Gardens

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Cottage Grove Park & Ride

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Storm water compost gabion living wall system

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2c. Filter-berm Basins

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Future Today: Value Added Engineering

  • Specialty Logs

–   Metal Trapping

–   Nutrient Trapping

–   Concrete slurry management

–   Living Walls

  • Bioswales, living treatment systems
  • Road-Kill Processing

New methods of application

 

Oil Trap Logs

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Heavy Metal Trap Log (lead, mercury, copper, nickel, zinc)

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Concrete Washout Filtrexx Filter RingsTM

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Concrete Slurry Management

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Living Wall Technology

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Ditch phytoremediation

 

  • Reno blanket safety approaches
  • Subcut 6 inches, 12 inch total height
  • Replaceable media, backhoe width

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Hydrocopmpost of Bison Manure feedstorm

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No Limit to Imagination

  • Landscape medium
  • Lawn Medium, minimum watering
  • Erosion Control
  • Sediment control
  • Steep slope stabilization
  • Storm water quality
  • Chemical management
  • Wetland restoration
  • Safety

Questions

  • dwayne.stenlund@dot.state.mn.us
  • 651-366-3625
  • 612-810-9409

Sediment Basin

  • Build first or concurrent to upgradient drainage discharge
  • Prepare basin between rain events

–    Clean out when ½ full

–    Gravity dewater

 

 

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