Reference Library

Soilworks products are the industry’s top standard due to our insistence on creating high performance soil stabilization and dust control products that stand up to rigorous testing – both in the lab and in the field. Our commitment to quality and performance has led to our involvement and testing in hundreds of real-world situations. The following library of reports, presentations, specifications, approvals and other similar documents provide you, our customer, the transparency and dependable assurance that is expected from Soilworks.

Rapid Soil Stabilization Technologies (TPD0811007)

Objective

To employ mats, soil stabilizers, fibers, geotextiles, etc… for rapidly constructing airfield facilities

  • Low logistical effort
  • Minimal stabilization
  • Reduced cure/construction times
  • Weatherproofing/dust control
  • Repair

 

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: Soil Improvement (with Heavy Equipment)

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: Aircraft Parking

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Matting Systems

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: ERDC HVS Test Facility, C-130 Wheel, 30,000 Lbs on 6” of Stabilized Soil

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Dust Control Application

 

APPROACH

 

  • Applied Research (6.2) – Development of promising technologies for soil stabilization
    • Polymer/Cement blends
    • Fiber/Cement blends
      • Synthetic
      • Wood/cellulose
    • Polyurethanes/Epoxies
      • Single and two-component mixtures
    • Cold-weather curing of cements
  • Demonstration Technology (6.3) – Utilize existing technology for military applications
    • Scale-up of polymer/cement and fiber/cement stabilization from laboratory to field
    • Testing of commercial mat systems for airfield applications

 

Products

 

  • Airfield Matting
    • Materials
    • Construction and design methodology
  • Dust Control
    • Materials
    • Application and Construction Methods
  • Soil Stabilization
    • Materials – Including Freeze-thaw areas
    • Aircraft Specific Thickness Design
    • Construction Methods

 

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Dust Control Application

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: ERDC HVS Test Facility, c-130 Wheel, 30,000 Lbs on 6” of Stabilized Soil

Rapid Stabilization Work Unit Plan

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Table: Rapid Stabilization Work Unit Plan

 

Pertinent Work Units

 

  • C-17 Shear-Resistant Stabilizer Development – FY07 End
  • Dust Control Technologies – FY07 End
  • Stabilization of Thawing Soils – FY05 End
  • Rapid MOG Enhancement Technologies – Need Extension through FY06
  • Demonstration of Advanced Stabilizer Technologies (C-130) – FY05 End
  • Field Testing of Advanced Stabilizer Technology (C-17) – FY06 End
  • Evaluation of Structural Requirements for Stabilized Airfields – FY06 End
  • Maintenance and Repair of Stabilized Layers – FY06 End
  • Demonstration of C-17 Stabilization Technology – FY06 New Start

 

Accomplishments Thru FY04

 

  • Progress:
    • Tested Commercial Mat Types Over Different Soil Strengths
      • C-130 contingency weights
    • Rapid Soil Stabilizers
      • Fibers and fast-setting cements
      • Polymers and fast-setting cements
    • Improved Dust Abatement
      • Best construction techniques
      • Best application equipment
      • Evaluated commercial products
    • Developed Cold Weather Stabilizers
      • Admixtures in cement for curing under freeze-thaw conditions
    • Ft. Bragg Demo

 

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Airfield Matting

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Soil Stabilization

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: HUMVEE Sprayer

Ft. Bragg Demo – Mat testing for C-130 Loads

Test

Mat

6” Clay-Gravel Base (40-50 CBR)

Pressure Cell

Buckshot Clay 24” Subgrade (8-10 CBR)

Test

Mat

6” Base

Pressure Cell

Buckshot Clay 24” Subgrade (8-10 CBR)

Test

Mat

6” Base (3-5 CBR)

Pressure Cell

Buckshot Clay 12” Subgrade (8-10 CBR)

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: 6” Clay Gravel Base

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Installing Pressure Cells at Top of Clay Subgrade

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: C-130 Load Cart on Durabase

Ft. Bragg Demonstration – Materials

 

  • ACE Mat
    • Lightweight, easy to handle
    • Easy to install
    • Fiberglass
  • Polymers and Fibers – Why?
    • Reduced Logistics
      • Polymers and fibers weigh less than half of cement
    • Improved Performance
      • Less cracking means less FOD
  • Polymer/Cement Synergy
    • Polymer/fiber helps cement
    • Cement Helps polymer/fiber

 

Chart Graph Placeholder

Table: Fort Bragg Soil Strengths

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Fibers

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Polymer

C-130 Load Testing of Stabilized Surfaces

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: ERDC HVS Test Facility

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Rut Depth with Number of C-130 Wheel Passes

Ft. Bragg Demo Candidates – Testing

 

  • C-130 Wheel load 30,000 lb, 750 passes
  • One Day Cure
  • SM Soil

 

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Loaded C-130 Wheel on SM Soil

<Cracked at edge of wheel path, 5” rut>

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: C-130 Testing on Emulsion Polymer/Cement

<Cracked at edge of wheel path, 3” rut>

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: C-130 Testing on Fiber/Cement

<1/2” rut @ 750 passes>

Ft. Bragg Demo – C-130 Parking Aprons

 

  • Two C-130 Parking Aprons – 40,000 sq. ft. each
    • Apron 1
      • Half ACE mat
      • Half polymer/cement
    • Apron 2
      • Fiber/Cement

 

• Sicily ALZ, Ft. Bragg, NC

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Apron 1 – ACE Mat/Polymer/Cement

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Apron 2 – Fiber/Cement

FY05 Activities

 

  • C-17 Load Testing – Contingency loads at 206 kips/gear
    • Commercial Mats
      • Soloco Durabase – Heavy Duty
      • Soloco Bravo – Lightweight
      • ACE mat – Lightweight
    • Stabilized Soil
      • Fiber/Cement
      • Synthetic
      • Wood/Cellulose ?
  • Laboratory Testing
    • Moisture-Cure Polyurethanes
    • Different fiber types
      • Monofilament vs. fibrillated
      • Wood/cellulose
    • Improve fiber/soil/cement adhesion

 

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Test Facility

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Stress vs. Strain

MATS

 

  • What have we learned so far?
    • Durabase is an excellent load-bearing mat
      • Logistically unwieldy
      • Heat resistance?
    • Bravo mat suffered mechanical failure
    • ACE Mat is an excellent lightweight mat for medium strength (CBR >8) soils
      • 1000 passes of C-17 at contingency operating weight (206 kips) with minimal damage over CBR 8-10 SM soil
      • Needs proper anchoring for wind loads

 

Picture Placeholder

Photos: Various Mats

 

Soil Stabilization

 

  • Laboratory Testing of Soil Stabilizers
    • Moisture-Cure Polyurethanes
    • Different fiber types
      • Monofilament vs. fibrillated
      • Wood/cellulose
    • Improve fiber/soil/cement adhesion

 

Picture Placeholder

Photos: Laboratory Testing of Fiber Types

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graphs: Stress vs. Strain

Moisture Cure Polyurethanes – MCPUR

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. MCPUR, 1% Soil Moisture

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. MCPUR, 5% Soil Moisture

Moisture Cure Polyurethanes – MCPUR

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Toughness vs. MCPUR, 1% Soil Moisture

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Toughness vs. MCPUR, 5% Soil Moisture

MCPUR Cure Time – UCS

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. Cure Time (Days) 

MCPUR Cure Time – TOUGHNESS

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Toughness vs. Cure Time (Days)

So Why not MCPUR?

  • Advantages
    • Super stress and strain properties
    • Would be great with added fibers
  • Disadvantages
    • Hard to construct with
    • Viscosity like honey
    • Sticks to equipment
    • Difficult to clean
    • Very expensive
    • Poor shelf life
    • Hazardous

Picture Placeholder

Photos: Application Equipment

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: Aircraft/Airfield 

Effects of Cement and Fibers on Soil

  • Stress/Strain Response – ¾” Fibers

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Stress/Strain Response, Load Lbs. vs. In.

Effects of Fiber Type and Concentration

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. Stabilizer Type

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Toughness vs. Stabilizer Type

 

Soil Stabilization

  • What have we learned so far?
    • Cement is hard to beat – Economical, ubiquitous, easy to use
      • FOD nightmare when it fails
    • Fibers are excellent in blends with binders such as polymers and cements
      • Fibers reduce cracking – less FOD
      • Too long and fibers are hard to construct with
    • Emulsion polymers are easy to use
      • Great for weatherproofing, dustproofing surfaces
      • Don’t perform as well as fibers in blends with cement
      • Slow to cure without ‘help’ (cement)
    • Fibers
      • Improving adhesion of fiber to cement/soil is beneficial- ongoing research
    • Curing Polymers – Epoxies/polyurethanes
      • Single Component Moisture Cure Polyurethanes (MCPUR)
      • Great Properties
      • Hard to control, construct with
      • Two-Component Polyurethanes/Epoxies
      • Great Properties
      • Strict mixing requirements – special equipment needed
      • Can be controlled better than MCPUR

FY06-07 Activities

  • FY06 – C-17 Loads
    • Field Studies
      • Soil Stabilization
      • SM Soil 6” Depth, CBR 8-10
        • Synthetic Fiber/Cement Blends
        • Wood/Cellulose/Cement Blends
      • Clay Soil
        • Candidate materials will be based on laboratory studies
      • Maintenance and repair will be accomplished during field studies
      • Mat testing over Clays
    • Laboratory Studies
      • Stabilization of Clay Soil
      • Cement, lime, fibers, ionic stabilizers
  • FY07 – C-17 Demonstration

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: Soil Improvement (with Heavy Equipment)

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: Aircraft Parking

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Matting Systems

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: ERDC HVS Test Facility, C-130 Wheel, 30,000 Lbs on 6” of Stabilized Soil

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Dust Control Application

 

APPROACH

 

  • Applied Research (6.2) – Development of promising technologies for soil stabilization
    • Polymer/Cement blends
    • Fiber/Cement blends
      • Synthetic
      • Wood/cellulose
    • Polyurethanes/Epoxies
      • Single and two-component mixtures
    • Cold-weather curing of cements
  • Demonstration Technology (6.3) – Utilize existing technology for military applications
    • Scale-up of polymer/cement and fiber/cement stabilization from laboratory to field
    • Testing of commercial mat systems for airfield applications

 

Products

 

  • Airfield Matting
    • Materials
    • Construction and design methodology
  • Dust Control
    • Materials
    • Application and Construction Methods
  • Soil Stabilization
    • Materials – Including Freeze-thaw areas
    • Aircraft Specific Thickness Design
    • Construction Methods

 

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Dust Control Application

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: ERDC HVS Test Facility, c-130 Wheel, 30,000 Lbs on 6” of Stabilized Soil

Rapid Stabilization Work Unit Plan

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Table: Rapid Stabilization Work Unit Plan

 

Pertinent Work Units

 

  • C-17 Shear-Resistant Stabilizer Development – FY07 End
  • Dust Control Technologies – FY07 End
  • Stabilization of Thawing Soils – FY05 End
  • Rapid MOG Enhancement Technologies – Need Extension through FY06
  • Demonstration of Advanced Stabilizer Technologies (C-130) – FY05 End
  • Field Testing of Advanced Stabilizer Technology (C-17) – FY06 End
  • Evaluation of Structural Requirements for Stabilized Airfields – FY06 End
  • Maintenance and Repair of Stabilized Layers – FY06 End
  • Demonstration of C-17 Stabilization Technology – FY06 New Start

 

Accomplishments Thru FY04

 

  • Progress:
    • Tested Commercial Mat Types Over Different Soil Strengths
      • C-130 contingency weights
    • Rapid Soil Stabilizers
      • Fibers and fast-setting cements
      • Polymers and fast-setting cements
    • Improved Dust Abatement
      • Best construction techniques
      • Best application equipment
      • Evaluated commercial products
    • Developed Cold Weather Stabilizers
      • Admixtures in cement for curing under freeze-thaw conditions
    • Ft. Bragg Demo

 

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Airfield Matting

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Soil Stabilization

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: HUMVEE Sprayer

Ft. Bragg Demo – Mat testing for C-130 Loads

Test

Mat

6” Clay-Gravel Base (40-50 CBR)

Pressure Cell

Buckshot Clay 24” Subgrade (8-10 CBR)

Test

Mat

6” Base

Pressure Cell

Buckshot Clay 24” Subgrade (8-10 CBR)

Test

Mat

6” Base (3-5 CBR)

Pressure Cell

Buckshot Clay 12” Subgrade (8-10 CBR)

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: 6” Clay Gravel Base

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Installing Pressure Cells at Top of Clay Subgrade

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: C-130 Load Cart on Durabase

Ft. Bragg Demonstration – Materials

 

  • ACE Mat
    • Lightweight, easy to handle
    • Easy to install
    • Fiberglass
  • Polymers and Fibers – Why?
    • Reduced Logistics
      • Polymers and fibers weigh less than half of cement
    • Improved Performance
      • Less cracking means less FOD
  • Polymer/Cement Synergy
    • Polymer/fiber helps cement
    • Cement Helps polymer/fiber

 

Chart Graph Placeholder

Table: Fort Bragg Soil Strengths

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Fibers

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Polymer

C-130 Load Testing of Stabilized Surfaces

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: ERDC HVS Test Facility

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Rut Depth with Number of C-130 Wheel Passes

Ft. Bragg Demo Candidates – Testing

 

  • C-130 Wheel load 30,000 lb, 750 passes
  • One Day Cure
  • SM Soil

 

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Loaded C-130 Wheel on SM Soil

<Cracked at edge of wheel path, 5” rut>

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: C-130 Testing on Emulsion Polymer/Cement

<Cracked at edge of wheel path, 3” rut>

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: C-130 Testing on Fiber/Cement

<1/2” rut @ 750 passes>

Ft. Bragg Demo – C-130 Parking Aprons

 

  • Two C-130 Parking Aprons – 40,000 sq. ft. each
    • Apron 1
      • Half ACE mat
      • Half polymer/cement
    • Apron 2
      • Fiber/Cement

 

• Sicily ALZ, Ft. Bragg, NC

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Apron 1 – ACE Mat/Polymer/Cement

Picture Placeholder 

Photo: Apron 2 – Fiber/Cement

FY05 Activities

 

  • C-17 Load Testing – Contingency loads at 206 kips/gear
    • Commercial Mats
      • Soloco Durabase – Heavy Duty
      • Soloco Bravo – Lightweight
      • ACE mat – Lightweight
    • Stabilized Soil
      • Fiber/Cement
      • Synthetic
      • Wood/Cellulose ?
  • Laboratory Testing
    • Moisture-Cure Polyurethanes
    • Different fiber types
      • Monofilament vs. fibrillated
      • Wood/cellulose
    • Improve fiber/soil/cement adhesion

 

Picture Placeholder

Photo: Test Facility

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Stress vs. Strain

MATS

 

  • What have we learned so far?
    • Durabase is an excellent load-bearing mat
      • Logistically unwieldy
      • Heat resistance?
    • Bravo mat suffered mechanical failure
    • ACE Mat is an excellent lightweight mat for medium strength (CBR >8) soils
      • 1000 passes of C-17 at contingency operating weight (206 kips) with minimal damage over CBR 8-10 SM soil
      • Needs proper anchoring for wind loads

 

Picture Placeholder

Photos: Various Mats

 

Soil Stabilization

 

  • Laboratory Testing of Soil Stabilizers
    • Moisture-Cure Polyurethanes
    • Different fiber types
      • Monofilament vs. fibrillated
      • Wood/cellulose
    • Improve fiber/soil/cement adhesion

 

Picture Placeholder

Photos: Laboratory Testing of Fiber Types

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graphs: Stress vs. Strain

Moisture Cure Polyurethanes – MCPUR

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. MCPUR, 1% Soil Moisture

 Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. MCPUR, 5% Soil Moisture

Moisture Cure Polyurethanes – MCPUR

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Toughness vs. MCPUR, 1% Soil Moisture

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Toughness vs. MCPUR, 5% Soil Moisture

MCPUR Cure Time – UCS

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. Cure Time (Days) 

MCPUR Cure Time – TOUGHNESS

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Toughness vs. Cure Time (Days)

So Why not MCPUR?

  • Advantages
    • Super stress and strain properties
    • Would be great with added fibers
  • Disadvantages
    • Hard to construct with
    • Viscosity like honey
    • Sticks to equipment
    • Difficult to clean
    • Very expensive
    • Poor shelf life
    • Hazardous

Picture Placeholder

Photos: Application Equipment

 Picture Placeholder

Photo: Aircraft/Airfield 

Effects of Cement and Fibers on Soil

  • Stress/Strain Response – ¾” Fibers

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Stress/Strain Response, Load Lbs. vs. In.

Effects of Fiber Type and Concentration

Chart Graph Placeholder

Graph: Unconfined Compressive Stress vs. Stabilizer Type

Chart Graph Placeholder 

Graph: Toughness vs. Stabilizer Type

 

Soil Stabilization

  • What have we learned so far?
    • Cement is hard to beat – Economical, ubiquitous, easy to use
      • FOD nightmare when it fails
    • Fibers are excellent in blends with binders such as polymers and cements
      • Fibers reduce cracking – less FOD
      • Too long and fibers are hard to construct with
    • Emulsion polymers are easy to use
      • Great for weatherproofing, dustproofing surfaces
      • Don’t perform as well as fibers in blends with cement
      • Slow to cure without ‘help’ (cement)
    • Fibers
      • Improving adhesion of fiber to cement/soil is beneficial- ongoing research
    • Curing Polymers – Epoxies/polyurethanes
      • Single Component Moisture Cure Polyurethanes (MCPUR)
      • Great Properties
      • Hard to control, construct with
      • Two-Component Polyurethanes/Epoxies
      • Great Properties
      • Strict mixing requirements – special equipment needed
      • Can be controlled better than MCPUR

FY06-07 Activities

  • FY06 – C-17 Loads
    • Field Studies
      • Soil Stabilization
      • SM Soil 6” Depth, CBR 8-10
        • Synthetic Fiber/Cement Blends
        • Wood/Cellulose/Cement Blends
      • Clay Soil
        • Candidate materials will be based on laboratory studies
      • Maintenance and repair will be accomplished during field studies
      • Mat testing over Clays
    • Laboratory Studies
      • Stabilization of Clay Soil
      • Cement, lime, fibers, ionic stabilizers
  • FY07 – C-17 Demonstration

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