Dust Suppression Alternatives for Municipal Roads in Nunavut

Department of Community and Government Service; Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research
2009-09-01

 

Dust Suppression Alternatives for Municipal Roads in Nunavut

September 2009

 

 

Prepared by the Department of Community and Government Service

Wrthmajor assistance from the Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (ICURR)

 

 

The Kivalliq Mayors passed a resolution at their February 2009 regional meeting requesting CGS investigate alternatives to calcium chloride for dust suppression on municipal roads.

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Product Research

 

CGS tasked the Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (ICURR) to research alternative products as well as the cost for these· products to what was available and how ;t would compare on a cost basis with calcium chloride.

 

The attached document details products that are available for use.

 

It was noted at the beginning of the research project that the Nunavu

Department of Environment has only approved 3 dust suppressants for use in the territory. Those products are Calcium Chloride, Bunker C Oil and DL10.

 

On an application basis all the products researched would require a dedicated tanker truck with spray bar to treat roads.

 

The cost to treat a kilometre of road with any of the products researched is considerably more expensive than treatment with calcium chloride. Costs ranged from $4000 to $32,480.00 per kilometre depending on the product before freight. These costs do not factor in capitalization of a tanker applicator vehicle.

 

Calcium Chloride at a before freight cost of $1590.00 per kilometre is 2 ½ times less expensive to purchase than the cheapest alternative product researched. On a cost analysis basis, calcium chloride continues to be the best value for the dollar.

 

Calcium Chloride

 

Calcium chloride appears to be considered by some to be ineffective at controlling dust on gravel roads. Calcium Chloride is still one of the most heavily used dust control products world wide in municipal and industrial applications.

When applied properly it is not only effective but is. extremely cost efficient.

 

Calcium Chloride is a hydroscopic compound which means it attracts moisture and in doing so keeps roadways damp to suppress dust. In order for calcium to be effective it must be buried in flake form into the roadway 3 to 6 inches belOIN the surface. It can then draw moisture from rain, fog or watering to keep dust down.

 

 

 

During a number of community visits when calcium chloride treatment was underway staff from CGS has noted that the product was being improperly applied to municipal roads and as a result the effectiveness of the product is greatly diminished. In most cases the product was spread on top of the road

surface and then watered which left it prone to being washed away into dra inage

ditches. In one community it was dissolved in a tank of water before being applied to the road which essentially prepared the bulk of the product to runoff into the ditches.

 

Conclusion

 

Calcium Chloride is an effective dust suppressant that is cost effective to purchase and apply to road surfaces for Nunavut Communities . It is one of only 3 approved suppressants that can be used in Nunavut at this time and it is

affordable for communities facing tight budgets. Continued use of calcium chloride is feasible if proper application training is conducted for municipal employees.

 

Recommendation

 

The department of Community and Government Services should conduct training for municipal employees for calcium chloride application on munici al roads prior to the summer 2010 season.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents ................................................................................................................... ,.................... 2

overview ................................., .........................................................................................................................., ...................111••· 3 Mandate.........  ... ..........  .... ...........  ,............................................................................ 3

Background................................................................................................................ 3

Product  Descriptions..................................................................................................... 4

Product Application ....• 9............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

Product Shipping and Cost............................................................................................ 7

Contacts ...........................................................,,......................................4 ............................................................................................. 9

References ...........,.................................................................,......•.•....•••.•·····••111 •4 ............ 10

 

 

 

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (!CURR)                 2

Comite intergouvernementaf de recherches urbaines et regionales (GRUR)

 

 

 

Overview

Mundate

One outcome of the February 2009 Regional Mayors Forum in Nunavut was a petition to the territory's Ministry of Community and Government  Services  to  investigat altem at ives  to the use of calcium chloride for dust control on municipal roads.

 

The Ministry contacted ICURR to conduct a preliminary survey of alt er atl ve products,

paying particular attention to:

  • Costs including weights for shipping
    • Application process
    • Required equipment for application
    • Pros/con for environmental side effects

 

The Ministry also informed ICURR that Tembind, a lignin-based product, had already been investigated locally and need not be considered In this survey. !CURR was  directed  to restrict this survey to 6-8 different products.

 

Background

To place the options for c.onsideration in c.ontext, it is important to consider the key benefits for dust control or suppression:

  • Road maintenance costs can be lowered by reducing loss of aggregates
  • Road safety can be Increased by improving visibility and road surface conditions
  • Dust-related health issues for humans ca be minimized
    • Negative Impacts of dust on wlldllfe and vegetation can be reduced
      • Damage to vehicles and equipment can be reduced

 

The decision on which dust control process is to be used must consider several important questions:

  • Is the product environmentally responsible? Does It meet regulat ry standards?
    • Is special equipment required to apply the product?
    • Are there safety issues for employees and/or contractors in handling t he product?
      • Will there be any need for special storage and warehousing?
      • Howeffectivels the product In achieving the desired outcome?
        • What is the required frequency of applica tlon? How durable is the product?
        • Cost?

 

 

Before even embariclng upon a dust suppression strategy, the road authority should determine If other elements of road performance have been Incorporated Into the assessment. Road design and construction, including crowns, shoulders and drainage should be examined. Are appropriate surface materials being used? Have  reduced  speed limits been considered? Is paving an option?

 

 

Intergovemment.al Committee on Urban and Regional Research (!C URR)                3

Comiteintergouvemementalderecherches  urbalnes et regionales,(CIRUR)

 

 

Product Descripttons

The categories of products for dust suppression include:

  • Hygroscopics (magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, etc)
    • Lignln derivatives (e.g . Tembec's Tembind or TOS)
    • Bitumens, tars and resins
      • Vegetable oils (canola, soybean, linseed etc)
      • Synth etic polymer emulsions

 

Since the chlorides currently In use In Nunavut have been determined to  be  undesirable, and a llgnan product has already been tested, ICURR did not include any products based on these compounds in this survey. Bunker C oil was to be considered but has been omitt ed from this report due to its negative environmental impacts (Yukon) and the  fact  that  changes to pet roleum refining processes have rendered the product scarce and relatively expensive ( interv iew with Frank Hall, OGRA).

 

In most cases, any dust suppressant will be affected to a certain extent by the conditions in which it is being applied and under which it is expected to perfom,. The local  soil  (percentage of sand, glacial till, clay etc), the drainage conditions, the application process  and the application rates all play into the product's perfomi ance . Simila r1y , traffic type and density need to be taken into account. The number of vehicles per day and the type of vehicles (percentage which are automobiles, light- duty trucks, heavy equipment, ATVs etc) will both need to be assessed against product features in order to determine the best choice for the particular situation .

 

Given that most product testing has been conducted in southern Canada and the United States, product selection for use in far northern locales should probably be preceded by testing under local conditions and on tundra soils. It is important to stress that the manufacturer's recommended application rates need to be followed to guarantee results.

 

There are many companies In North America selllng dust suppressant products for  roads  and this report does not attempt to be comprehensive or recommend one product over another. For the purposes of this research, a sampling of seven {7)  companies and eleven (9} products was m ad e. The sampling attempts to provide an array of altem ative products representing different product categories and including both Canadian and American suppliers capable of delivering ln the volumes required.

 

 

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (! CURR)                 4

Comlt intergouvememental de recherches urtJaines et ionales (CIRUR)

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Selected non-chloride, non-llgnan dust suppressants

Formula Placeholder

 

*MSDS sheets or equivalent data is available from most suppliers on their web sites

 

 

 

 

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (!CURR)                  S

Comite intergouvememental de recherches urbalnes et regiona/es (CIRUR)

 

 

 

Product Application

Application of dust suppressant products can be either topical or worked into the surface via grading or scarification. Some products are applied as supplied and others require additional handling (e.g. mixing, pumping, heating, compacting etc). Products come in a variety of forms including liquids, emulsions, powders etc. Curing times are often dependent upon climate conditions at the time of application and can also vary significantly from product to product. The duralnillty of dust suppressants depends upon the type of product used, its application, the amount of rainfall, the temperature and the amount of traffic. Some product durability is enhanced with each subsequent application.

Table 2. Application

 Formula Placeholder

*MSDS Sheets or equivalent data is available from most suppliers on their web sites 

 

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (!CURR)                    6

Comite intergouvemementa/ de recherches urbaines et regionales (QRUR)

TPD0909039

 

 

Product Shipping and Cost

Obviously, in shipping these products any great distance, the shipping co ..s can  be  the single largest expense. Product pr1dng in almost all cases will vary depending upon the quantities ordered, and shipping costs will vary based on the weights of the product and the distances to be shipped.

 

The products are generally available In bags (SO to 55 pounds) or totes if they are in powdered formats and 450 pound drums or 2000 plus pound totes if they are liquid. Bulk shipments are available for most products will result in better pricing for both product and shipping costs.

 

Most product manufacturers indicate that surface condition is a factor in product  efficiency and surface preparation costs will only be known on a case by case basis. This can range from no surface preparation r'equi red to extensive gradIng, searlflcation and dralnage work. Clearly, the more preparation required prior to application will have an impact on cost.

 

Application rates vary from product to product. Even with the same product, suppliers often specify a range of application rates depending upon road and climate conditions.

 

Application equipment costs in many cases will be no greater than current  costs  where typical water trucks with sprayer attachments are used. However, in  some cases, products will necessitate the addition of agitators or pumps which will need to be factored in to cost estimates.

 

The durabillty of the product is another factor to be considered when evaluating cost. Durability claims vary widely from product to product and those claims will need to be evaluated on a case by case basis. Some products would need multiple applications per season while others claim to need only one. Most products must be  reapplied  after reworking the surface for maintenance but at least one claims to continue to  be  effecttve after reworking. Alter the initial application, some pr-oducts are applied  at the  same rate for all subsequent appllcatlons while others can be applled at significantly reduced rates on subsequent applications (as ltttle as 30% of the 1st appllcatlon). All of these elements can  have a dramatic effect on the cost.

 

In comparing costs, the relative environmental Impacts, while difficult to quantify, should be factored in. Also, when compared  to  chloride based products, all of the  products surveyed for this report do not have the corrosive qualltles on machines and equipment normally associated with chlorides.

 

Finally, product handling and storage ts different from product to product. Emulsions require careful handling and cleanIng of equipment, some products work best when applied in warm weather and others daim to be easily applied in below freezing weather. is may result in incremental costs or savings for the road authority.

 

The cost estimates in the table that follows  are  based  on application  rates that  are either the recommended rate or the highest rate for maximum results and durability. Lower rates might be appropnate In certain cases. Toe costs are also based on pricing provided for non­ bulk orders.

Interyovemmenta/ Committee on Urban and Regional Research (!CURR)                7

O,mfte intergouvememental de recherches urbalnes et regionales (CIRUR}

 

Table 3. Product shipping options and cost

Formula Placeholder

*All costs are exdusive of shipping and application. Materia l cost per km ls based on an 8 metre application width (8000m2 ) one application only.

 

Intergovernmental Comm;ttee on Urban and Regional Research (/CURR)                8

Comfte lntergouvememental de recherches urbaines et reg/onales (CIRUR)

 

 

 

Contacts

Cypher Environmental Ltd

391 campbell st

Winnipeg, Manitoba R3N 1B6 Norm Bums, 204-489-1214

http://www cvoherenv,ronmental,com/

 

Petro Canada

P.O. Box 2844

150 - 6th Avenue S.W.

calgary, Alberta TIP 3E3

Corinne Cory, 1-866-355-3369, 403-296-8000

http://www.petro canada.ca/default.aspx

 

MIiiigan Bio-Tech Inc

Box 130, 907 Highway 16E

Foam Lake, Saskatchewan S0A lAO

Rob McGregor, 306-272-6284, 1-866-388-6284

www.mllliganblotech com/

 

 

Enssolutlons Ltd

450 Sherman Avenue North Hamilton, Ontario LBL 8J6

Phil Moruzi, 905-312-8422, 1-866-306-2489

 

 

Hydrograa Technologies

157 Southbridge Road,

North Oxford, Massacheussetts, 01537

Paul Nigoslan, 508-726-7695, 1-800-853-5393

http://www.hydroqrasstech.com/

 

 

SynTech

520 East Woodruff, Toledo Ohio 43604

Ted Leslie, 1-800-537-0288

http://www.syntechproducts.com/

 

 

Rock Solid Solutions

Box 1800, Nanton, Alberta TOL lR.O

Jeff Sears, 1-888-646-0180, 403-312-1174 (cell)

http://rocksolidsolutlonsjnc.com/

http; //durasou.com/

Intergovemmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (!CURR)              9

Comlte fntergouvememental de rechert:.hes urbaines et regiona/es (CIRUR)

 

References

Dust control for Unpaved Roads, National Guide to Sustainable Municipal Infrastructure
(lnfraGuide), October 2005
Dust Palliative Application and Selection Gulde, Bolander et al, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, 1999
http://www-rcy.wa.gov/programs/a1r/pdfs/Dust Palliat1ve.pdf
Potential Environmental Impacts of Dust Suppressants: Avoiding Another Times Beach, An
Expert Panel Summary Las Vegas, Nevada May 30-31, 2002, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agiency 2004, Piechota et al.
http.//www.epa.gov/esd/cmb/pdf/dust.pdf
Testing of Dust Suppressants for Water Qua/lty Impacts, Karen Irwin et al, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2008.
h v r i no air D f
Alaska Rural Dust ontrol Alternatives, (DRAFT), Sierra Research for the Alaska Department
of Environmental Conservation, 2006
b .,o. //www. f pa .goy/reg1on09/air/dust/Dustsuooressants-seot2ooa, odf
Dust Suppressants, Environment Yukon, Government of Yukon. Retrieved on March 3, 2009
from http://environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/monitoringenvironment/EnvironmentActandRegulations/distsuppres.php
Telephone interviel s with each company contact, February 25 to March 6, 2009
Telephone interview with Frank Hall, Ontario Good Roads Association (OGRA), March 2,
2009.

 

Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research (/CURR)              10

Comite intergouvememental de recherches urbaines et reglonc1les (CTRUR)

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