Reference Library

Soilworks products are the industry’s top standard due to our insistence on creating high performance soil stabilization and dust control products that stand up to rigorous testing – both in the lab and in the field. Our commitment to quality and performance has led to our involvement and testing in hundreds of real-world situations. The following library of reports, presentations, specifications, approvals and other similar documents provide you, our customer, the transparency and dependable assurance that is expected from Soilworks.

Comparative Performance Analysis for Soil Stabilization Between Traditional Processes and Soiltac (TPD1009020)

The present titration work will develop an investigation regarding the properties and uses
of an innovative product in our country, presenting its advantages and disadvantages to
make known the different properties and characteristics of soiltac versus conventional soil
stabilizing products such as sodium chloride and magnesium chloride.
Cost comparison studies are carried out among the different soil stabilizers in which
bischofite, sodium chloride and soiltac are taken. This analysis represents the different
possibilities that a typical paving project can have.
This work will develop a research degree on the properties and uses of an innovative
product in our country, presenting its advantages and disadvantages to raise awareness
of the different properties and characteristics of products Soiltac versus conventional soil
stabilizers such as sodium chloride and magnesium chloride.
Studies are conducted for a cost-comparison between different soil stabilizers which take
bischofite, sodium chloride and Soiltac. This analysis represents the different possibilities
that a typical paving project can have.

The products frequently used in our country for the construction of pavements such as
asphalt and concrete take a long time to run, which makes them more expensive due to
the costs involved in their implementation and maintenance, such as different items used
in the construction of any road. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate with respect to
the existence of a product that is more economical for use in sectors of lower traffic.
Nowadays it is necessary to reduce costs in the different products that are used in roads,
rural basically, in order to provide satisfaction to the people who benefit from this
implementation. For this it is imperative to find low-cost products, but that are of similar
quality of those already used. For this reason, a new product will be analyzed in Chile but
it has been used for a long time in other countries of the world. This product is called
Soiltac; and the virtues and limitations of this product will be reviewed, in relation to the
systems most frequently used nationwide, such as salts.
Soiltac is an emulsion of vinyl acetate copolymer, a high technology product, produced
and developed in the United States which brings to our country technical and economic
benefits in different road and civil works projects, related to soil stabilization and
maintenance of roads. The environmental properties will be analyzed, since relevant
studies, demonstrated by the company in the United States, Soilworks®, they certify it as

The product in question consists of a single distributor in our country, which corresponds
to Controlterra Project Engineering, which is mainly focused on the evaluation and
implementation of projects related to soil stabilization and solidification, dust control,
erosion control and products specially designed for the paving of roads and circulation
areas in general, which is responsible for carrying out the execution of the project and its
respective commercialization.
It has the exclusive representation for Chile of the products of the company Soilworks®
of the USA, which has developed, after many years of research and experimentation,
different product lines of high complexity within the field of nanotechnology (formation of
copolymers of vinyl acetate) and organic synthesis (formation of organic molecules). With
this, the highest environmental protection standards were achieved in its role as a particle
controller PM10 – PM2.5 (particles > or = 2.5 microns), dust eliminator, stabilization and
ground hardener.
For more than 15 years, Soilworks® products have been specified and used for different
uses at the level of the Armed Forces of the USA. It most frequent applications are in the
paving of dirt roads, stabilization of bases, control of dust and erosion, and transit of heavy
trucks, airstrips and heliports.
Soiltac is a reformer product in our country which is certified by the Ministry of Public
Works (MOP), through simple compression tests certifying its compliance with the
specified requirements for a road work (Annex 1), which gives it formality and security to
the product, and mainly reliability to its different consumers within the construction market.
What the present project is about is a study of guarantees that Soiltac presents in front of
its direct competitors, such as stabilized pavements with salts, which aims to provide the
necessary tools for the greater capture of consumers with greater benefits than those
already existing in traditional elements, both of time and handling of the materials.
On the other hand, in this thesis a comparative study will be carried out on the quantitative and qualitative advantages of conventional stabilization products and the product in question.

A comparative analysis will also be carried out in relation to its application and its costs,
applying it to an urban paving project with few requirements, such as access to “Villa El
Palqui”, located in the municipality of Monte Patria, El Palqui city, Fourth region.



– Contrast the technical attributes of the stabilizing compound Soiltac, and evaluate its
application in the completion of urban transit pavements.
– Carry out a comparative analysis by means of execution procedures and costs
between conventional soil stabilizers and Soiltac.
– Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the conventional stabilizers and the
new product, it is intended to solve a project technically, using the analysis of this
– Conduct a competitive analysis of Soiltac, through the internal and external analysis
of the product.

Threat I
Soil stabilizers

1.1. Generalities

We call stabilization of a soil the process by which natural soils are subjected to certain
handling or treatment so that we can take advantage of their best qualities and ensure
they are able to withstand the effects of traffic and the most severe weather conditions.
The stabilization of soils in practical engineering, particularly in land routes, has been a
widely used technique to improve the stress deformation behavior of soils.
The improvement of the floors has attended to diverse requirements, such as the shear
strength, the deformability or compressibility, the volumetric stability in the presence of
water, among others, seeking in all cases, a good behavior deformation of the soil and
the structure that is placed on them, throughout their useful life.
The stabilization of folders is a medium to long term solution, whose objective is to
maintain the conditions and initial standards of traffic ability avoiding the early destruction
of the road due to the traction of vehicles and the loss of moisture from the floors. Its
expected duration, without needing any maintenance, can be 2 years or more, depending
mainly on the quality of the materials used for the construction of the granular base, the
climatic condition of the road and the existence of an adequate system of water sanitation.

It is said that it is the correction of a deficiency to give it a greater resistance to the ground
or, to diminish its plasticity. The three ways to achieve it are the following:

1.2.1 Physical Stabilization

This is used to improve the soil producing physical changes in it. There are several
methods such as:

– Soil mixtures: this type of stabilization is in wide use but by itself cannot produce
the desired effects, always needing at least the compaction as a complement.
For example, coarse-grained soils such as gravel-sands have a high internal friction which
makes them endure great efforts, but this quality does not make them stable enough to
be firm on a road since their particles do not have cohesion or move freely, and with the
passage of vehicles they can even become separated.
The clays, on the contrary, have a great cohesion and very little friction which causes
them to lose stability when there is a lot of humidity. The proper mixing of these two types
of soil can result in a stable material in which the great internal friction of one and the
cohesion of the other can be exploited so that the particles stay together.
– Geotextiles
– Vibroflotation (Soil Mechanics)
– Previous consolidation


1.2.2 Chemical Stabilization:

It refers mainly to the use of certain patented chemical substances and whose use
involves the replacement of metal ions and changes in the constitution of the soils involved
in the process.
– Lime: it reduces the plasticity of clay soils and is very economical.
– Portland Cement: increases the resistance of the soil and is used mainly for fine
sands or gravels.
– Asphalt Products: emulsions that are used a lot for crushed material without
– Sodium chloride: waterproof and reduces the dust in the soil, mainly for clays and
– Calcium chloride: waterproof and reduces the dust in the soil, mainly for clays and

Hexahydrate Magnesium Chloride: waterproof and reduces the dust in the soil,
mainly for clays and silt.
– Foundry Slags: This is commonly used in asphalt binders to give it greater strength,
waterproof it and prolong its useful life.
– Polymers: This is commonly used in asphalt binders to give it greater strength,
waterproof it and prolong its useful life.
– Rubber Tire: This is commonly used in asphalt binders to give it greater strength,
waterproof it and prolong its useful life.

1.2.3 Mechanical Stabilization:

It is the one with which it is possible to considerably improve a floor without producing
important chemical reactions.
– Compaction: This improvement is usually done in the sub-base, base and in the
asphalt folders.

1.3 Stabilization with chemical products

At present a large number of chemical products has been applied for this purpose, most
of them with satisfactory results. Although it is uncommon, stabilization with acid products
is currently acquiring a lot of diffusion and experimentation. Of the acids that have been
shown to be effective in modifying some soils favorably, some are economically
competitive against other more common products. However, as in the case of the other
products mentioned above, we must seek the advice of specialists.

At the end of the nineties, the Regional Directorate of Roads of the Third Region started
using salts as stabilizers due to the large amount of dust being produced when vehicles
transited certain routes. This application allowed drivers to properly see the road.
However, this was being applied without any specific technique.

was thanks to the good result and, especially, the low cost of bischofite, sodium chloride
and thin asphalt layers, among others, that the Ministry of Public Works (MOP) decided
to create the program “Basic Roads 5,000”, which consisted in improving the rolling
surface of unpaved roads throughout the country, by applying economic solutions such
as those mentioned above.


1.4 Sodium Chloride

1.4.1. General

Salt is a natural stabilizer, which modifies the structure of the stone material, improving its
physical properties, which contributes to increased resistance to tensile and compressive

The main use of salt is as a dusting on bases and bearing surfaces for light traffic. It is
also used in very dry areas to prevent rapid evaporation of compaction water.
Sodium chloride is composed of approximately 98% NaCl and 2% clay and silt, whose
fundamental property, being hygroscopic, is to absorb moisture from the air and
surrounding materials, reducing the point of evaporation and improving the cohesion of
the soil. Its coagulant power leads to a less mechanical effort to achieve the desired
densification, due to the ion exchange between sodium and the mineral components of
the fine matrix of the materials, producing a cementing action.
Salt (sodium chloride) is produced by three methods, the oldest being the use of solar
heat to produce the evaporation of salt water obtained from salt waste.
Sodium chloride occurs in the form of crystals, which are easily soluble in water, which
are said to be hygroscopic, and which is commercially available by forming large crystals
or fine powder with different purity states.
Its use is for all types of soil, but its effectiveness is threatened by the presence of organic material which decreases its properties.Sodium Chloride (common salt) has great advantages over the other stabilizing elements because of the large amount of it found throughout the world, its low cost and the ease of its application.

1.4.2. Applications

The stabilization with salt has multiple applications, and not only on roads that can be
stabilized for road folders, bases, sub-bases, natural or subgrade soils, but also landing
strips in aerodromes, parking lots, consumption centers, supermarkets, schools, multisports
playgrounds and stadiums, other areas such as outdoor warehouses, industrial
yards and trails, among others. In summary, it is adaptable to a great variety of other uses.
On surfaces stabilized with salt, it can be primed, double-treated, asphalted or concreted
without any other limitation than those of the products to be used.
Photograph 1: Application of sodium chloride as a soil stabilizer.Picture Placeholder

Photograph 1: El Dorado mining access, Region II, Chile.
In the stabilization with salt like any other procedure, the quality of the finished work will
depend on the materials used and that the builder adheres to a good construction
technique and to the general recommendations delivered by the supplier.

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Photograph 2: Stabilized road in the V region, Quilpue interior road (Image A:
Stabilized road just finished; Image B: road stabilized after two months).

The machinery and its correct use, together with minimum conditions in terms of
sanitation, longitudinal and transversal slopes that allow the runoff of rainwater, a
minimum compaction at a density level of 95% and a suitable homogenization, will allow
to have a portfolio rolled.

1.4.3. Advantages and disadvantages that sodium chloride provides


Sodium Chloride (common salt) has great advantages over other stabilizing elements,
due to the large amount of it found throughout the world, its low cost and the ease of its

It is a natural stabilizer improving the resistance and cohesion of the floors, providing an
increase in the density of the road, allowing to improve its resistance to traction and
It requires a curing period of 15 days to T ° environment. (depending on the weather), a
recommendation proposed by the Roads Laboratory to see if it increases the soil
resistance and verify if it behaves better over time; the traffic is not interrupted during the
execution of the work or during the curing period, and in addition occupies typical
machinery on the roads.
Absence of dust, calamine, loose material, and rutting of the road therefore improves the
quality of life, which allows a safer transit improving its visibility through a smoother riding
The roads treated with salt demand minimal maintenance, so their repair is simple and
economical. You can also apply other types of pavements on it as asphalt products.
Roads treated with salt show a reduction of fine material in suspension (dust) of 99%, do
not pose health risks, and reduce noise on the outside of the vehicle due to the more
closed surface texture which remains in the folder with salt.

At times when the humidity is high, the surfaces become slippery, especially if they have
some degree of plasticity, increasing the risk of accidents and also producing innumerable
problems of corrosion in vehicles.
An incorrect choice of materials and bad homogenization of the components of the mixture
can lead to a failure, that is to say, a layer of wear, calamine, with holes and uneven.
Roads treated with salts demand vigilance after the process of being stabilized is finished;
although the road can be used immediately after completing the compaction of the folder,
precautions should be taken to ensure that the vehicles do not brake sharply or accelerate
in such a way that they skid, during the period of the set the folder (10 to 15 days), which
is very difficult to control.
The drainage system adopted should be periodically checked, especially after heavy rains
or rainfall. In this type of solution, care should be taken that the road does not suffer any
cuts due to the passage of water that breaks the continuity of the latter. It could also cause
significant effects on the environment: Sodium Chloride in high concentrations records
impacts that speak of damage to vegetation, fauna, soil, surface water and drinking water
in its surroundings.


1.5. Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate (Bischofite)

1.5.1 General

Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, better known as bischofite, is one of the most used
elements to stabilize and eliminate pollution from unpaved routes. It is a chemical
stabilizer and dust control agent for unpaved roads, produced in a 100% natural form from
magnesium rich brines existing in the Salar de Atacama.
Photograph 3: Magnesium Chloride already made in the form of salt.

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Its method of operation through high hygroscopicity, allows it to attract and retain
moisture, avoiding the loss of fine particles of soil and controlling the emission of dust. In
addition, it increases the useful life of the roads by reducing the effects of the abrasive
action of traffic or “traction” due to the formation of a resistant structure on the surface
produced by its crystallization.
Its use for its perfect finish must always be diluted in water in the form of a liquid solution,
and it can be used as a rolling file stabilizer (homogeneous mixture with the road material
over the entire thickness of the folder) or powder control agent (irrigation on the road surface).

The construction process is similar to the construction of a conventional rolling folder, only
replacing the compaction water with a concentrated solution of Magnesium Chloride.
It is the hygroscopic property of this material and its hexahydrated molecular composition,
since hygroscopicity has the ability to take and retain moisture from the environment in
order to maintain the optimum humidity of the granular base, and therefore, keep the
material of the folder cohesive. This situation occurs when the relative humidity of the air
is higher than 32%, only from this the bischofite will be able to absorb it.
In this way, the bischofite, whose commercial name is Roadmag (Salmag), was making
its way onto a market that knew hardly any other resources than sodium chloride (salt),
which would allow them to stabilize small routes at a cheaper cost.
Photograph No. 4: Sequence of preparation of a stabilized road.

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It is for these characteristics that, generally, it is used in arid zones where the probability
of precipitation is almost nil. Being an element of high hygroscopic capacity, when trapping
moisture a softening occurs in the folders of rolls that contain this material. As a
precaution, on these occasions these routes must be closed to vehicular traffic.
Photograph No. 5: Finished road stabilized in access to Marqueza, Province of Elqui, IV

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For this reason, the bischofite is one of the main components of the rolling folders that
have been applied in various northern roads, from the First Region to the IV Region. Being
the majority carried out in the Antofagasta regions, Atacama and Coquimbo,
since they are the areas closest to the Salar de Atacama, where the company Salmag exploits the material. “In the First Region they are just beginning, mainly because thedistances are long.” Many times, the cost of transportation of the product, US $ 19 a ton,becomes $ 30 or more. Sometimes transporting the bischofite costs more than the product itself.

Photograph No. 6: Stabilized pathway with Magnesium Chloride, Ocoa Commune,
V region (image A, newly stabilized path, image B, at 2 months).

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Image A

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Image B


1.5.2 Economy and Benefits

Currently, this resource is being used both in the stabilization of roads and in the control
of dust and de-icing thereof. An example of this is Route 60 Ch, better known as “Paso
Internacional Los Libertadores”, in which the bischofite is being used to avoid ice on the
road, because this material has the quality of lowering the point of freezing water to 32º
below zero, which helps to prevent vehicles from sliding.

The most relevant case of the application of this, is the agreement between Codelco and
Vialidad, whose purpose was the construction of the route B-400 “Baquedano –
Mejillones”. In this way, the Chuquicamata mine was linked to the Mejillones port, without
having to go through the city of Antofagasta. The state mine stabilized 30 kilometers of
the road that connects Baquedano with the port of Mejillones with bischofite.
Unlike what many might think, the conservation of stabilized roads is a simple application
of very little frequency, it is perhaps this characteristic that has produced the success that
it currently has. Before, when stabilizers were not used, the conservation of roads was
much more complex and, above all, they had to be done very frequently.

1.5.3. Maintenance

The reason that explains the deterioration of the routes goes beyond the climatic
conditions, especially the precipitation of those that manage damage roads that do not
have an adequate sanitation. In addition, these can be produced by a defective
construction, that is, when bad base materials are used. Another factor that can affect
them is the constant vehicular traffic that is producing the deterioration of the layer.
Therefore, it is necessary that every one to three years they recondition, following the
minimum technical conditions required. “Sometimes, after one or two years, the road is a
bit stubborn, then it is necessary to profile with a motor grader and moisten it. It would be
very different if I had nothing, we would have to be passing the motor grader every month”,
explains the head of the basic roads unit of MOP.

1.5.4. Polluting effects

Another major concern that derives from the use of bischofite is the possible
contamination of crops near the roads, where this resource has been used, either in the
dust suppressant treatment (TSP) or in the stabilization of the same. Therefore, Salmag,
is the one who is dedicated to apply and control the TSP process, because misuse of this
product can cause serious damage. The risk is always present, especially when there are
watercourses close to where it is being applied.
Against this the MOP argues that they are aware that this material should not be installed
near some types of crops that may be affected. While the engineer of the Center for
Engineering and Road Research at the Catholic University, Felipe Halles, explains that “if
there is no direct contact, there is no problem.” Therefore, it is necessary that there are
measures that guarantee the 1.5 meters of distance that must exist between the point of
placement and the vegetation that is to be protected.
In another context, the great dream for many specialists is that Roadmag is used in the
stabilization and suppression of road dust throughout the country. The latter explains the
different tests that are being carried out and to begin disseminating their employment in
these areas. “It is so hygroscopic (bischofite) that in the presence of rains it could selfdissolve.”
That is, if it is carried to the south and if it is applied without care in terms of
materials and road geometry, we could have disastrous results.”

1.5.5. Road safety

The roads treated with bischofite, especially those with good granular bases, such as
those used in roadways or mine access roads have not presented any inconvenience
since they acquire the appearance of paved roads.
Do not forget to mention that it is not recommended for high speeds because it is
hygroscopic stabilized, which makes excess moisture possible in some sectors that in
some situations and cities in our country can cause serious problems for the safety of
users of this route. This excess humidity can be produced by rains, channels, rivers, or
even humidity with an excessive environment (fog) as it is very normal in the Norte Grande
zone in our country.
To avoid the above, it is possible to take a series of measures:
– Open granulometry or fine control to increase friction.
– Control of the application to avoid overdoses or reduce doses in extremely plastic
– Information to the user. Since you must have a signage like a road paved with
asphalt or concrete, that is, you must take the same precautions as conventionally
paved roads.
To date in our country there are few typical demarcations, that is, continuous lines,
segmented, etc., which have not been inconvenient with the bischofite, although despite
the humidity of the road could last shorter than typical pavements, which border between
9 months to a year.

1.5.6. General Properties

– Strengthens the links between the fine and coarse particles in the soil.
– Agglomerates fine particles of plastic and non-plastic soils.
– It crystallizes on the surface, forming a film resistant to abrasion of the tires.
– It captures and retains environmental humidity over 32%, emulating an irrigation
on the road.
– Maintains optimal moisture in the folders.
– Reduces the evaporation rate of water 3.1 times.
– Lower the freezing temperature of the water to -33°C (eutectic T°).
– PH : 4.7 a 25°C.
– Toxicity: Meets TCLP Test – EPA method 1311
– Reactivity: Complies with EPA Method 1001 and 1002
– Corrosivity: Complies with EPA Method 1110 A. Non-Corrosive Classification.


1.6. Effects of salinity on vehicles

As it is known, Sodium Chloride in an aqueous medium is a very strong corrosive agent
of metal.
Surveys were carried out on vehicle owners living in areas where such experiments had
been carried out after one year. Even though the participants had a certain fear of roads
with salt, they did not notice any difference in the bodies of their vehicles, as shown in
Figure No.7. This may be due to the fact that when it rains, the salt crystals, which are not
very large, dissolve in the rainwater and off to the sides of the road and to the ground.

Photograph No. 7: Deterioration of vehicles when in contact with roads stabilized with
sodium chloride.

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Image: Structure that holds the seats

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Image: Body, rear sector

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Image: Solidified salt, rear sector.

1.7. Basic Roads

The idea of ‘Basic Roads’, was to provide low cost solutions for routes that were on land.
The first goal was 5,000 kilometers, which had to be met by March 2006. However, this
was completed in October 2005. The next goal was to make another 5 thousand
kilometers by March 2009, a goal that was fulfilled, and whose 10,000 kilometers was
inaugurated in May of this year.

The program operates with a portfolio of unpaved rural road projects. These roads are not
socially profitable if they were paved through traditional techniques, therefore, they are
not considered within the paving works of the Roads Department. In order to be served
by the program, these roads must have an Average Daily Traffic (TMDA) of less than 300
vehicles per day, with no more than 75 heavy vehicles per day, and no contemplation or
expropriation or layout changes. Any of these conditions that is not met, is not considered
eligible for this program.

The program has a single component corresponding to the execution of projects on the
basic solutions for the surface of unpaved rural roads, understanding them, and finding
solutions where the investment cost is less than the cost for pavement, thus achieving
control of the emission of dust on the roads for a longer duration of time. The techniques
used are two:

– Roads with the application of a soil stabilizer that consider 3 types of solution:
Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate (Bischofite), Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride.
Sodium chloride (common salt) is obtained from the purification of saline in northern Chile,
and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite) is a byproduct of lithium production.
These chlorides have the characteristic of forming a thin layer on the granular folder,
eliminating in this way the problems of particles in suspension and mud or mud that this
last folder generates.
– Paths with an application of a thin asphalt layer (CAPROS) that involve covering the surface of the unpaved road with an asphalt solution ranging from 6 mm and 10 mm (reinforced primer) to 4 to 5 cm (asphalt mix folder).

The experience has led to consider exclusively an asphalt solution from the Valparaíso
and Metropolitan Region to the South, except the regions of Maule (where the Bischofite
has not presented problems after its application) and Aysén (the characteristics of
isolation and low traffic have not considered asphalt layers). From the Coquimbo region
to the north, the solution is basically a stabilization with chlorides and for roads of some
importance some asphalt layer has been considered.
Table No. 1: Amount of Projected Work 2005-2008

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In this way the stabilizers most used in our country are sodium chloride and magnesium
chloride, which have a majority of kilometers executed throughout our country.
This is why the analysis of these two salts is studied and projected as stabilizers.


Chapter II

It is a product developed in the USA by Soilworks® LLC., a company that has specialized
in the manufacture of products that help control dust, stabilize soil, and any other type of
project in soils that involve or imply stabilization.
For this the company developed several products, being Soiltac the most representative,
for its varied use, either for soil stabilization operations, on dirt roads, dust control,
construction of trails, etc.
Soiltac is a vinyl acetate copolymer that binds soil particles, not having a chemical
reaction, so this material is certified by the National Roadway Laboratory, resulting in low
bearing capacity patterns that, by themselves, do not meet the standard of 5 Kg./cm², are
greatly improved, achieving a support capacity above 27 Kg./cm², through simple
compression tests.
On the other hand, it is designed to be durable and resistant to the use of daily water, sun,
and alkaline.
Depending on the dosage and levels of compaction, similar results to asphalt and
concrete can be achieved, it also presents the convenience of being diluted in both fresh
and salt water without affecting their properties.


It is a polymer-based emulsion used to stabilize all types of soils, dust control and erosion control. Soiltac, is developed either for large commercial projects, as well as for domestic or residential applications. Some of its applications can be as simple as watering the floor with it. Thus, since it is designed to penetrate to the deepest of the ground. Soiltac, once applied and cured, is completely transparent, leaving the landscape with the appearance of not having been intervened. The results of Soiltac are based on your average application rate. On the other hand, more concentrated product applications can generate results similar to the qualities of cement.

Soiltac, was recently evaluated by the Army Engineering Research and Development
Center, against the best soil stabilizers and dust suppressors in the industry. As a result
of this, the Department of Defense of the United States, supplied the different branches
of the Armed Forces of the United States with Soiltac for the recent Operation, Iraqi
Freedom Military (Operation Iraqi Freedom).

There are two applications of Soiltac for different engineering designs such as the topical
solution such as kneading, which can last approximately 24-48 months before needing
some maintenance, whereas in the kneaded solution they are designed to last several
years longer than the Topical depending on the use that is given, such as any pavement,
depending on traffic that had the road or area to be paved.

Photographs No. 8 and 9: Applications of the material in situ.

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The maintenance of the product could be one of its main advantages before its
competitors, since it is recommended to use approximately 30% of the initial topical
application volume used to treat the area for any type of application. Soiltac is developed
to create cumulative effects caused by additional maintenance layers applied over time;
therefore, the interval of time between layers will increase considerably between one and
the other, the material will be enhanced as the years go by with good maintenance. If the
treatment area has been intervened or its deterioration is allowed during the time the
amount to be used for its subsequent maintenance will be almost as much as the original
application. Therefore, it is important to monitor the area and the time between
maintenance for long-term use.

Faced with the factors that eventually affect the behavior of Soiltac are mainly:
– Reason for the application
– Dilution Ratio
– Type of Floor
– Level of Compaction
– Traffic Volume
– Depth of Penetration
– Degree of Rain Fall
– Temperature

Soiltac as a raw material for soil stabilizing, and above all it is developed for any type of
soil. For this reason, always depending on the type of soil, they go with different amounts
of material for specific projects.
In the face of weather conditions such as the temperature and rain, the first Soiltac can
be applied to temperatures above freezing and below boiling, the lower the temperature,
the longer the curing process; before rain Soiltac should be applied to a dry base and with
sufficient time for application in good weather conditions (without rain). Once the curing
process is finished, Soiltac is no longer soluble in water and will not be affected by it, it
will not dissipate or be leached from the treated area. Under conditions below freezing,
the treated area would not be affected as long as the aforementioned has finished its
curing process.

The curing process depends directly on the following factors:
– Reason for the application
– Dilution Ratio
– Type of Floor
– Temperature
– Depth of Penetration

The typical curing time for a topical application is approximately 24-72 hours, the same
goes for a kneading application. A topical film could be formed in 5 minutes in high heat.
Soiltac can be stored for up to 12 months.

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The transport of this material is not regulated as it is not toxic in any field and can be transported nationally and internationally. Cleaning the product simply with water and if it is already cured, it is recommended to use a pressure washer and / or hot water and a scrubbing brush.



These advantages are presented in an explicit and immediate way for a quick overview
of the product.

– Regulation PM-10 and PM-2.5 (Eliminates dust particles of 2.5 microns in size)

– No-It Disperses (will not drain with water once cured)

– Ecologically/Environmentally Safe

– Biodegradable

– Long-term and short-term solutions available

– Dyes and pigments can be added to give color

– Resistant to Ultraviolet Rays (it will not break with the sun)

– Resistant to an alkaline soil (will not be damaged in floors alkaline)

– Dry Clear/Clear

– Dry Flexible

– Water Resistant (it will not be damaged by water)

– Mix with water to dilute it (before its application to the ground)

– Insurance for Vegetation (It will not harm Vegetation)

– Simple and Easy to Apply

– Not regulated for Transportation

– It will not come off with the tires. (It will not be picked up in vehicles)

– Dry Toilet

– Not Volatile No Flammable

– Not risky Not toxic and Non-corrosive

– No leaching (will not continue to filter on the ground)



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2.5.1 Toxicity Analysis, Microbiological and Biological Properties

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2.5.2 Chemical properties and Nutrients

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2.5.3 Leaded metals

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Photographs of stabilized roads, application and process.

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Soiltac®, it allows to finish colors by pigmenting the areas when applied; a completely
innocuous green dye is incorporated, which will give a natural appearance to the work; In
the case of roads, the color of the asphalt can be given in order to paint road signs and
demarcate the road.

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SWOT, is the acronym used to refer to an analytical tool that allows to work with all the
information that is possessed about this product, it is essentially useful to examine its
Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats.
This type of analysis represents an effort to examine the interaction between the particular
characteristics of the product and the environment in which it competes and unfolds. Many
of the conclusions obtained as a result of the SWOT analysis, will be able to show us the
great qualities of the proposed product.
Strengths: they are the special qualities that the product has, and for which it has a
privileged position in front of its possible competitors.
Opportunities: they are those factors that are positive, favorable, exploitable, that must
be discovered in the environment in which the product acts, and that allow obtaining
competitive advantages.
Weaknesses: they are those factors that cause an unfavorable position in front of the
competition or possible competitors, resources that are lacking, skills that are not
possessed, activities that may not develop positively, etc.
Threats: they are those situations that come from unfavorable factors and that can end
up attacking the advance and permanence of the product.


– Easy drive.
– Longer duration.
– Quick installation.
– Simple application (does not
require a sub-base).
– Application of color (pigment).
– Rapidity in the curing of the
material in the area.
– In maintenance, the addition of
copolymer adds to the above by
increasing its properties.
– Easy drive.
– Agricultural Solutions
(Hydroseeding, fast access
interior constructions)
– It achieves solutions without
impacting the environment
(biodegradable, non-toxic,
colorless, odorless, etc.).
– The climatic conditions must be
considered, both by rainfall and
temperatures for a perfect
application (temperatures not
lower than 10 ° C and without
rain during application and
drying, for better results).
– Little knowledge of the people in
front of the product.
– Unknown at the national level.


One of its main strengths is its duration in time to which soil stabilizers, such as salts,
usually last for 1 to 2 years.
After a sample of the product in the soil to be used, it is necessary to know how the soil
reacts with regard to absorption, ambient temperature and humidity in order to examine
the amount of water and Soiltac necessary for the satisfaction and demands required by
the client to the company.
This product has an easy handling because the product is a thick liquid that comes in
different forms of distribution since it can be as much as drums, or drums which make it
easy for transportation and handling of the product.
It has a very fast installation since it mixes plainly with the product and any type of water,
whether fresh or salt water, which is applied directly on the ground to stabilize. This
application can consist of a tank truck or simply a hose, or on the other hand procedures
similar to the one of the concrete mixing previously with the raw materials, then to compact
the previous land emptied of the material already mixed by the same, has an easy
In the maintenance of its applications on roads, the addition of the copolymer to what was
originally applied enhances it by increasing its properties, which weaken over time. This
is much lower in cost than the conventional process, and only 30% of the Soiltac solution
that was used previously need be applied. The product can be mixed with water and
applied immediately.

This innovative product, like any other product of this characteristic, always has a small
reluctance towards climatic factors, whether due to humidity, rain, temperature, etc.
However, this weakness is due to the fact that it cannot be applied with direct rain, that is,
if at the moment of its application it is raining, therefore it would not set because the
material in its installation is liquid and mixing would lose the properties initially demanded
by the client, but at the time of being set, this would be between 24 to 72 hours depending
on the humidity of the environment there would be no mishap against some type of
As for the humidity, this would only vary in the number of hours needed to cure the product
before the final delivery and final use of the finished land to be used.
And regarding the ambient temperature Soiltac does not work in front of temperatures
lower than -15 ° C since it is by logic that the product in question freezes with that

This product, although it has already been said that it is innovative in the face of soil
stabilizers, also has advantages over agricultural services such as hydroculture, which
serves as a great aid for the runoff of land and seeds against slopes and climatic
conditions. It can also be applied to roads of rapid construction in interior accesses.
Soiltac is totally harmless to the environment, since it does not contaminate or contain
toxic products, is odorless, colorless, environmentally safe, biodegradable, etc., as
explained in the description of the product to analyze.

The little knowledge of the people who are involved in the construction sector, mainly in
the paving section, since this is a fundamental threat to the distribution of the product and
their participation in paving projects.
In terms of marketing, Soiltac is unknown so far in the domestic market, and for this reason
must compete with products more commonly used.
In terms of technical evaluation, there are no Soiltac applications within our national
market that are of sufficient antiquity to empirically determine their durability; there are
only the experiences of other markets where the product is commonly used.


Threat IV


Threat of entry of new competitors refers to the market or the segment is not attractive
depending on whether entry barriers are easy or not to be crossed by new participants
who can come with new resources and capabilities to seize a portion of the market.
The rivalry between competitors if a product will be more difficult to compete in a market
or one of its segments where competitors are very well positioned, are very numerous
and fixed costs are high, it will constantly be faced with wars between competitors.
Bargaining power of suppliers a market or market segment will not be attractive when
suppliers are very well organized, have strong resources and can impose their price
conditions and order size.
Buying power of the buyers a market or segment will not be attractive when customers
are very well organized, the product has several or many substitutes, the product is not
very differentiated or is at a low cost for the customer, which allows you to make
substitutions equally or at a very low cost. The greater the organization of the buyers, the
greater their demands will be.
Threat of income from substitute products a market or segment is not attractive if there
are real or potential substitute products. The situation is complicated if the substitutes are
more technologically advanced or can enter at lower prices, reducing the profit margins
of the corporation and the industry.


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Against direct rivalries to Soiltac, this does not present such competition, which there
is no rivalry of the same product in the market, although products with their
characteristics as a chemical stabilizer, there are several alternatives in the competitive
Its main competitors in which the product is faced are chlorides, which comprise most
of the stabilized routes in our country, these are: Sodium Chloride and Magnesium
Chloride since they are your direct competitors against the need for a required soil
The product in front of its clients tends to be several markets mainly the one for
construction which can be arranged in front of any company be it agricultural, mining,
road or roads in general; The product is mainly for construction companies, roads and
public paving statutes.
At the moment of competing with other stabilizers, it is mentioned as a substitute,
mentioned by companies that supply stabilized products, which fulfill the function as a
stabilizer although of a very short duration compared to its direct competitors.
Its main supplier of the product is Controlterra, which is the company in charge of
distributing and delivering the necessary information of the product to its customers
and personalities interested in the product. Controlterra is also in charge of the
installation and testing of the material on the ground required for exact product
placement and customer compliance.

The main possible competitors in the innovation of Soiltac in our country would be the
similar innovative companies in the construction sector such as SQM, Mudel, Amo &
Cia SA, etc., which are constantly innovating stabilizers and more convenient products
compared to the conventional market and always looking for satisfaction in terms of
quality and cost of the product required by the customer.

Threat V


The sector studied to obtain the comparison between the different types of pavements
corresponds to a sector of low inter-rural traffic in the municipality of Monte Patria, IV
Region of Coquimbo, which links the sectors of El Palqui with Villa El Palqui. The
average temperature is 21ºC, with an average annual precipitation of 125 mm, and
growth rate of 1.3%. The data of solicitation and characteristics of the road are the
Section length: 960 mt
CBR Average: 30 %
The road is included in a strip of average width of 15 mt, with an average slope of 3%,
in addition there are no particular topographical conditions in all its development.




5.2.1 Technical Specifications

Chemical Family: Emulsion of vinyl acetate copolymer.
Certifications: Soiltac® is certified by the National Roadway Laboratory of the Ministry
of Public Works, ORD: 5503, Date: April 20, 2005.
Synonyms: Soil stabilizer, floor stabilizing agent, floor solidifier, floor stick, soil
additive, floor hardening agent, dust control agent, dust inhibitor, dust palliative, dust
suppressant, dust retarder.
Physical form: Liquid
Color: White (transparent, once cured)
Odor: Soft
Risks: There are no health risks. Biodegradable product
Suggested use: Soil stabilization, soil solidification, control and dust suppression
from PM10 up to PM2.5, slope control, erosion control, preserves air quality.
Components: 50-65% vinyl acetate emulsion (copolymer)
50-35% water,
< 0.5% vinyl acetate (monomer) Standard Levels of Application according to use.

The concentration levels of the Soiltac® product (lt/m²), will vary depending on the
characteristics of the land or place of application, such as: type of soil, granulometry of
the land, climatic conditions, soil moisture, soil compaction, frequency and type of
traffic, load to which the land will be subjected.
As design calculations as such do not exist, it is necessary to first know the type of land
the product is going to be applied to, since this will determine the concentration that it
should have for the best execution. As demonstrated in Annex 4, the tests made by the
National Road Laboratory of Chile show the requirements of tension and unit
deformation to the break point, fulfilled by even very small concentrations of Soiltac as
stipulated by this institution.


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Chart Graph Placeholder Application Protocol “AMASADO”
– The application of Soiltac® by means of a “kneading” system (mixing the product
with the ground material), must reach an optimum humidity (7%). To do this, the level
of dilution of Soiltac® will be the difference between the desired humidity (7%) and the
% humidity in situ. With this, the appropriate mixture will be obtained.
– Once the soil has been scarified to the desired depth (10 cm approx.), It should be
stirred (motor grader) to rule out the presence of lumps that may prevent adequate soil
homogeneity and thus have no dry spots and make the mixture uniform.
– Remove all over-sized material (≥10cm), in order to prevent the final compaction
process (roller 10-15 ton) from being affected by these elements.
– During the application of Soiltac®, the appropriate temperature must be higher than
4 ° C, so that the curing process begins. The soil should not be exposed to rain until
72 hours after its application, to achieve the necessary evaporation of the moisture of
the mixture and, with it, the solidification of the mixture. Therefore, it is suggested to
know the weather conditions in advance.
– The concentrations or dilutions will be according to those suggested by ControlTerra,
depending on the characteristics of the terrain in each sector of the roads to be treated.
Attached is a standard table with the concentration levels and
dilution for Soiltac® application.

– Flashpoint. It does not register in its liquid state.
– Soiltac® is diluted in water.
– Soiltac® has a density of 1.1
– It is a viscous, white product. It does not produce odors and is transparent once
– Due to the characteristics of the product, once applied to the ground, vehicle traffic
can be immediate but, for normal use, after the application of the final stamp on the
road folder, it is recommended to start the transit in 6- 8 hours.
– Soiltac does not require permanent maintenance, since it is a product obtained by
means of nanotechnology, unifies the micro molecules in a mesh or block-type
folder, producing a seal free of emission of particles to the environment.
– The maintenance cycles are very far apart and will only be carried out when cracks,
breaks or wear occur over time, as a result of the traffic volume of vehicles and loads
to which the roads are subject (as in any concrete roll folder or asphalt). The required
maintenance is simple and will be carried out by applying, by topical route, only 30%
of the initially used concentration of the product, which will be diluted in water in a
proportion to be determined in a timely manner.
– Soiltac® is approved for use in road folders (Order No. 5503 of the National Roadway
Laboratory-MOP, of 20’Ar’05).
– Soiltac®, should not be stored in temperatures below 0 degrees.

– When the application of Soiltac® is by the method of kneading, the stages will be as follows:

– scarified from the ground at the previously established depth (approx. 10 cm).
– application of Soiltac® previously diluted in a certain volume of water, to reach
the 7% of humidity that is required to obtain an adequate mix with the ground
(truck cistern).
– knead and spread the mixture to form the folder (motor grader).
– leveling (motor grader).
– compact (roller 10-15 ton).
– let dry for 24 hours and apply the final seal (truck cistern).
– It will be possible to transit 6-8 hours after applying the seal.
– The product will be delivered in drums of 208 lt or in “totes” of 1,041 lt (plastic
container covered with steel mesh of: 102 x 122 x 117 cm).
– The loading of the Soiltac® product into the tank truck will be done by gravity, for
which a fork lift (or similar) is required to reach the height required to reach the truck’s
cargo hatch.
– The speed of the tank truck in the application of Soiltac®, will be defined by
ControlTerra in the work.
– Finally, a topical seal of Soiltac® will be applied to the wheeled folder once it has
finished its normal cure, approximately 24 hours after the initial application (depending
on the environment).
– Once the Soiltac® applications have been completed, the used equipment must be
washed with water, preventing the surplus from drying inside the equipment. Protocol Application “TOPICO”

– For its application the land must be completely dry and, without rain, for 72 hours
after the application of Soiltac®, so it is suggested to know the weather conditions
in advance.
– Ideally, that its surface is free of the presence of material with an oversize
(≥ 10 cm).
– Soiltac®, because it is a polymer designed for these purposes (stabilize and solidify
soils), can be applied on any type of terrain.
– The soil must be scarified (10 cm approx.), Leveled (motor grader) and compacted
(roller 10-15 ton), for the subsequent application of Soiltac® (tank truck).
– During the application of the product, the temperature must be above 4 ° C. In this
way, the curing process begins to take place. Ideally, for flat terrain, wait 6-12 hours
for the start of your transit. The total cure will be obtained after 24-48 hours,
depending on the environment.
– If it is desired to facilitate the penetration of the product, an initial irrigation can be
done, at a rate of 2.5 lt / m² with pure water, which will improve the transit of Soiltac.
– The concentrations or dilutions will be according to those suggested by
ControlTerra, depending on the characteristics of the terrain in each sector of the
roads to be treated. Attached is a standard table with the concentration and dilution
levels for the Soiltac® application.

– Flashpoint. It does not register in its liquid state.
– Soiltac® is diluted in water.
– Soiltac® has a density of 1.1.
– It is a viscous, white product. It does not produce odors and is transparent once
– Due to the characteristics of the product, once applied in the field, vehicle traffic can
be immediate but, for normal use, it is recommended to wait at least 6-12 hours.
– Soiltac® does not require permanent maintenance, since it is a product obtained by
means of nanotechnology, unifies the micro molecules in a mesh or block-type folder,
producing a seal free of emission of particles to the environment.
– The maintenance cycles are very distant and will only be carried out when cracks,
breaks or wear occur over time, as a result of the volume of traffic of vehicles and loads
to which the roads are subject (as in any concrete roll or asphalt). The required
maintenance is simple and will be carried out by applying, by topical route, only 30%
of the initially used concentration of the product, which will be diluted in water in a
proportion to be determined in a timely manner.
– Soiltac® is approved for use in road folders (Order No. 5503 of the National Roadway
Laboratory-MOP, of 20’Ar’05).
– Soiltac® should not be stored at temperatures below 0 ° C. For this, it is suggested
to store the product indoors, avoiding these temperatures.

– The application of Soiltac® to the land will be carried out topically by tank trucks.
– The spray bar of the truck is recommended to be of the width of the truck, to avoid
accidents when crossing with other vehicles.
– It is recommended to apply the product in a uniform manner, calculating that at least
4 passes are made with the tank truck along each section of road. It must be avoided
that the product dries between each application, so that Soiltac® has a correct level
of penetration and, thus, achieve the thickness previously defined for the road folder.
– It is essential to define the appropriate speed of the truck, according to the defined
concentration of Soiltac®, pressure and volume of the sprinkler bar, loading capacity
of the tank truck, room temperature and terrain characteristics.
– The speed of the tank truck in the application of Soiltac®, will be defined by
ControlTerra in the work, depending on the variables mentioned.
– The product will be delivered in drums of 208 lt or in “totes” of 1,041 lt (plastic
container covered with steel mesh of: 102 x 122 x 117 cm).
– The loading of the Soiltac® product into the tank truck will be done by gravity, for
which a fork lift (or similar) is required to reach the height required to reach the truck’s
cargo hatch.


Match: General.
Unit: m2.
Dosage: 1.16 lts. x m2, plus a seal of 200 cc x m2.

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5.2.3. Total Budget Soiltac (960 x 6 mt.).

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To give a reference in terms of the technical specifications of sodium chloride such as
magnesium chloride are basically the same as what distinguishes them is the material
to be used, being applied as any stabilizer of this type.


5.3.1. Technical specifications with sales Description and reach

It refers to the operations required for the provision, mixing, placement, profiling and
compaction of rolling folders considering adding salt in the mixing water with brine. The
folder will be built of 0.15 mt. On a previously prepared platform, according to the
pumping, super elevations and dimensions established in the project as the case may
be. materials

a) granular material
The sampled cord material before incorporation of the stabilizer must comply with the
Support capacity: CBR > 30% (with immersion and without salt)
Plasticity index: between 6 and 10
Liquid limit: Maximum 35%
Maximum size: 1 ½” (40 mm)


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b) salt dose

The dose considered for these cases is 45 Kg with a tolerance of 15% salt per m3 of compacted material. Work procedure

The constructive procedure of this type of work has the following stages: Preparation of the brine

The solid material will be mixed with water in a pond duly conditioned for these effects,
in order to obtain a good dissolution of the salt, to achieve a homogeneous and
saturated solution. Mixing, placing, compaction and finishing.

The material must be cordoned and mixed in the amount necessary to obtain the
required thickness and width. The mixing operation must be repeated as many times
as necessary to obtain the correct homogenization.
The optimum moisture of compaction will be obtained by applying brine irrigation until
the calculated salt dose is completed. In case the salt dose has been applied in its
entirety and the optimum compaction humidity has not been reached, only water should
be added until this moisture is obtained. Then the material will be distributed evenly, to
be compacted later.
The compacting of the gravel material will have to reach in all its thickness, a minimum
densification of 97% of the DMCS, obtained according to the method 8.102.7 of MC
V8. Surface finish

Once the compacting and profiling of the roll folder has been completed, its surface
must have a uniform appearance, a smooth texture and no thick material nests.
If areas with a thickness lower than the specified one are detected, the total thickness
should be scarified, to then add material, irrigate, compact and finish the surface until
it complies with the provisions of the previous paragraph.
The finished rolling folder must have the pumping and super elevations specified.
The thickness control will be carried out topographically, which is why prior to the
execution of the works, the contractor must elaborate and approve the respective
terrain profiles by the tax inspection, an antecedent that, once executed, will allow to
control the thicknesses.
At the end of the work of placement and compacting of the folder, the contractor will
perform new leveling, presenting the corresponding plans and cubicles, that certify the
volumes contracted, the above based on the same indications contained in section
5.209 of MC V5.
As the works will be carried out with the road in service, before initiating them the
measures indicated in section 7.205, “Safety during the work of MC V7”, and as
indicated in Annex 2, “Environmental considerations of transport and storage”, shall be
adopted, of the present specifications. Equipment required for a good placement of additive (salts).

The machinery to be used is the one commonly used in road works, that is to say,
hopper trucks and tanks, motor graders, smooth and pneumatic rollers. Which must be
in optimal mechanical condition, in addition to being sized for the work to be done, to
obtain a satisfactory performance and quality as a result.
For the correct execution of the work, the periodic control of the key equipment
will avoid future problems of termination, quality of work and compliance with deadlines. Compactor equipment

For the good sealing of the surface and compaction it is highly recommended the use
of a pneumatic roller, with the exception that it must not be passed through the shaft,
but always on both sides of it, to clearly mark the transversal profile with the respective
pump, otherwise, deterioration occurs due to the accumulation of water in the center of
the road (the other option is to leave a single transversal slope). Cistern

This equipment can be towed or self-propelled, having to be its capacity according to
the work and volumes of the project. Care must be taken that this equipment does not
have any water loss and the jets deliver an even and controlled form of water, either
gravitational or forced. The assigned work focuses on the irrigation of the kneading
cord to achieve compaction moisture and surface seal irrigations. Motor Grader

This equipment will have multiple uses in construction operations such as scarification,
cordoning, stirring (if necessary), extending the material and re-profiling.
For this reason, it is the machinery in which more emphasis should be placed on their
This must be self-propelled, with an adjustable turntable and angled blade also for
some types of maintenance work or repair of the roads this equipment should be
provided with scarifiers where possible and be provided with a longitudinal and
transversal slope sensor with hydraulic control on the blade or shovel. The blade or
shovel should be straight and in good condition without play. Equipment proposed for the incorporation of salt in the form of brine
The National Roads Laboratory proposes to have a team for the mechanical dissolution
of salts in general. The proposed equipment consists of a pond with a pyramidal or
conical bottom, in whose lower orifice is recirculated water extracted from the center of
the pond to produce a high agitation. In this way, a greater dissolution is achieved and
therefore a more concentrated brine is applied (advantageous when the cord already
has humidity and the maximum amount of brine to be applied is limited). With this it is
possible to place a less amount of salt. The additional advantage is that by applying
less salt, the possible risks of salt runoff that can affect the environment are reduced. APPENDIX 1: Repairs

Description and reach
The present specifications indicate the procedure that will allow possible repairs for
construction defects, which the contractor must consider in the costs.
Repair procedure type potholes
This procedure should be applied to all types of potholes and specific losses of material
on the surface.
– Make approximately vertical cuts in the area that has produced a detachment
of material, the minimum digging depth will be 0.10 meters.
– Extract the loose material and water the surface of the excavation with brine.
– Fill the excavated area with granular material mixed with enough brine to
achieve optimum compaction moisture.
– The compacting of the material should reach throughout its thickness, a
minimum densification of 97% of the DMCS, obtained according to method
8.102.7 of MC V8 (LNV-95).
– Clean the finished surface so that no loose material is left on it.
Other repairs:
Major repairs
We will proceed with this type of repair when the road surface presents major
deformations, which will be executed, profiling with a motor grader, before improving
in abundance or after heavy rain, if necessary, you can pass a roller, ideally one tire.
If the road lost its characteristics
It is possible to redo it completely, proceeding to scarify, homogenize, and add salt in
the proper proportions if new material has been added.
The good use of the equipment together with minimum conditions in terms of sanitation,
longitudinal and transversal slopes that allow the runoff of rainwater, with a minimum
compaction of 95% DMCS and a suitable homogenization, will allow to have a folder
of first-class rolling quality. ANNEX 2: Steps to consider in the case of stabilizing an existing floor.

– Moisten the existing soil surface, if necessary.
– Scarify at the indicated depth, cordoning off the material.
– Moisten and compact the subgrade to 95% DMCS.
– Extend the cordoned material.
– Add 50% of the optimum humidity.
– Add the salt to the specified ratio.
– Homogenization of the soil with the salt through successive passes of the motor
– Add water if necessary to achieve optimum moisture.

– Extend and compact to the required density.
– At the moment of profiling, do not forget to give the appropriate longitudinal and
transversal slopes, which allow a free flow of rainwater.
– The compaction must be done with a pneumatic roller, proceeding from the
edge towards the center, avoiding passing the roller on the shaft.
– The first roller pass should be made without vibrating, and the material should
be re-graded at the low points in such a way that the surface is as smooth and
homogeneous as possible.
– Once the compaction is finished, if necessary, it will proceed to give a superficial
irrigation, in order to maintain the humidity of the surface constant.
– If a pneumatic roller is available, finish the compaction with it.
– The setting process is 10 to 15 days depending on the weather.
– This is not an impediment for the road to be traveled, which should be done by
taking some precautions (do not brake sharply or accelerate the vehicles so that
they skate).
– If the weather is very dry, the surface should be sprayed with water for the first
few days until the set is complete.

Match: General.
Unit: m2.

Chart Graph Placeholder Total Budget for Sodium Chloride (960 x 6 meters).


Match: General.
Unit: m2.

Chart Graph Placeholder Total Budget for Magnesium Chloride (960 x 6 meters).

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For the comparison of projects of a different useful life, it is necessary to resort to
quantifiable alternatives, for this case, one of the alternatives is the use of VAC (Actual
Value of Costs), which is associated to the costs of a project, since its use lies in the
fact that there are types of projects that:
– Have benefits that are not possible or are very difficult to assess and quantify.
– The benefits are identical.
– The projects seek the alternative of minimum costs.

So we have to:

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MIDEPLAN, Division of Planning, studies and investment.

VAC = Actual Value of Costs
I0 = Initial investment.
r = Discount Rate.

To analyze the different paving alternatives, it is necessary to have unit costs of the
items that are currently used in the development area of the paving project, which is
why the reference prices used by the Housing Service are taken. Planning of the
Coquimbo Region, whose unit prices contain the General Expenses, Utilities and
Regarding the prices involved in the execution of a pavement with a Soiltac product,
an estimated budget developed by the company Controlterra is presented, which is the
official distributor of the product in Chile.
It must be taken into account that there are no complementary works to the pavements,
such as: Soleras, sidewalks, works of art, etc., in order to carry out a more comparative
analysis of the types of pavements used.

6.2. Budget for Sodium Chloride.

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6.3. Budget for Magnesium Chloride.

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6.4. Budget for Soiltac.

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6.5. VAC analysis

Once the total estimated costs have been obtained after analyzing unit costs, we proceed to analyze the different types of paving solutions using Current Cost Values, which use the operational costs involved in maintenance over 10 years, as if they are calculated over fewer years costs will not be fully apparent. In this case, the costs are implemented for both the cleaning of the track and the necessary maintenance, year after year, which have different materials to obtain the perfect state of the road. Having estimated operational costs for 10 years only on these conditions, we take the current value of the costs and are thus able to make a better decision on what materials to use before the project is studied.


• 10% Annual Discount Rate
When comparing the results obtained, we can conclude that Soiltac yields lower costs
in terms of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride, over 10 years.

Rescuing the results obtained we realize that the difference is not much money, about
10% increase in sales to Soiltac, but if you see the difference in operational costs
because they are much higher for their maintenance as over 10 years, since the
machinery necessary to compact at least once a year so that the road is stabilized for
a good use of it must be passed.
Furthermore, maintenance and renewal of the material is required around 2 years from
the date of full stabilization, maintenance is at a value of 30 to 40% of the initial cost,
while Soiltac at the fifth year would need maintenance with 30% of the product for the
first instance.


Comparative VAC of the materials for Sodium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride and

Chart Graph Placeholder

6.6.1 Results

– The operational costs are higher than Sodium Chloride and Magnesium
Chloride before Soiltac, since the salts should have an annual maintenance of
compacting and around two years a topical application of 30 to 40% of the
original ratio.
– Soiltac does not need to be constantly observing its evolution for the
maintenance of the road, only every five years an application of 30% of its
original material.
– If the Current Cost Value is analyzed over five years, the differences in the
final budget are less obvious and distinctive, as are the results in ten years.
– It is clear to realize that in the first instance Soiltac is less economical than the
chlorides analyzed.
– It is eloquent that with the final costs over time, Soiltac is more convenient.


In the analyzed product (Soiltac), if we measure it against the conventionally used ones
(sodium chloride and magnesium chloride) in little-traveled roads, such as cities that
have less vehicular traffic than large cities, we can say that in the future It will be much
cheaper because the implementation and maintenance costs are cheaper. This leads
to the society to access products of similar quality to those traditionally used.
The application of the product is faster than the chlorides since its duration is around
15 days while Soiltac is almost half the time, because it does not need as many
materials since the compound is liquid and its curing results in less time. In addition,
the land does not need great preparation, just remove the necessary thickness for its

One of the main disadvantages that are considered when stabilizing a soil with
chlorides is the cost of transport since its distributors are located in the northern zone,
that is, the first and second regions of our country, which can increase up to 50%. %
on the cost of the material itself.
In its applications are the topical and kneading, the first has fewer advantages because
it requires more periodic maintenance; On the other hand, the second one is more
elaborated which makes it adhere more easily to the earth and it does not require
continuous maintenance as the topical application that is conventionally used as a dust

In analyzing the costs over 10 years, we find that there is less scheduled maintenance
than salting in general. Although maintenance costs are lower over the years, the final
cost increases, as mentioned before, due to operational costs. Throughout these years,
Soiltac has a higher cost at first, but over 10 years distinguishes itself by having a lower
cost, thus being more economical and convenient.
For the study of the project carried out for the Monte Patria Commune, it is most
appropriate to use Soiltac, since over the years its economy would be greater, being
adequate for the expected requirements for the type of traffic it has, since its durability
will be noticed over time as compared to chlorides.

Soiltac, compared to the disadvantages of chlorides as stabilizers and the damage they
do to the earth, water and vegetation around the concerned roads, does not show any
evidence of having such negative impact, so it can be said that it is a considerable
advantage over the salts. Even more if we consider that these stabilizers are used
throughout our country, thus avoiding the central-southern area where foliage is
denser, in relation to the northern area where vegetation is almost nil, which makes its
greatest positive implementation in the south.

It is also worth mentioning its main weakness, which is the little incentive that exists,
since although it has been in our country for a while, it is still not enough for road
solutions that could be delivered on our roads, local roads, interurban roads, etc.
As said previously the disadvantage existing in the product, is that in our country we
cannot attest that it has a useful life of up to 5 years as described, since only recently
the product arrived in Chile, unlike the trajectory it has in the United States the one that is
applied in high traffic roads, heliports, runways, etc.

It remains to analyze its performance and competitiveness in some time to confirm and
compare Soiltac against new stabilizers, which of course in some years will be increasingly innovative, efficient and more economical than current products.



– Project Engineering Company Controlterra, Santiago, Chile.
– The ONDAC Construction Manual, No. 281 November – December, 2004.
– Caminos Básicos 5000 Program, Government of Chile Ministry of Public
Works – Directorate of Roads, October 2003.
– Illustrious Municipality of Monte Patria, IV Region of Coquimbo, Province of
– Road Manual Volume No. 3, “Design Instructions and Criteria”, Government of
Chile Ministry of Public Works – Roads Department, June 2002.
– Road Manual Volume No. 5, “General Construction Technical Specifications”,
Government of Chile Ministry of Public Works – Road Management, December
– Road Manual Volume No. 7, “Road Maintenance”, Government of Chile Ministry
of Public Works – Road Management, December 2003.
– Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning “Code of Standards and Specifications
– Paving Works Techniques”, July 1994 Santiago Chile.
– NCh 2505 of 2001. “Chemical Soil Stabilization – Product Characterization and
Soil Performance Properties Evaluation Methodology”. National Institute of
Normalization. Santiago, Chile.
– Basic Roads Program, Budget Management, Evaluation of Government
Programs, Roads Department, August 2009.
– Salmag, Leaders in Chemical Stabilization Technologies, “The New Road
– Sociedad Punta de Lobos SA, “NaCl stabilizing product”. Informative manual
and safety sheet.
– Sociedad Punta de Lobos SA, “Road Salt, an alternative for your road projects.”
– Thenoux Z. Guillermo, Civil Engineer, MSc, PhD, “Structural design guide for
roads with low traffic volume”, March 2008.
Web addresses
– http://www.construmatica.com/construpedia/accesado05/10/2009
– http://es.wikipedia.org/accesado05/10/2009
– http://www.dynal.cl/html/hogar/detalle.php?cod=4306&grp=012/accesado
– http://www.soilworks.com/accesado10/05/2009
– www.soiltac.com/accesado10/05/2009
– http://www.serviu.cl/accesado16/11/2009
– http://www.mop.cl/accesado25/07/2009
– http://www.salmag.cl/accesado17/11/2009
– http://www.invias.gov.co/info/manuales/Normas/especificaciones construccion
– http://www.imt.mx/Espanol/Publicacione/pubtec/pt201.pd/accesado17/11/2009



Product name Road Salt
Product code DR 999 V00 bulk
DR 999 V02 bag of 50 Kg
DR 999 V83 bulk bags
Name of Manufacturer and Distributor Society Punta De Lobos SA
Address Encomenderos 260 floor 6, Santiago
Background 200 2000
Fax 335 6231
Emergency phone 200 2000

Chemical Name Sodium Chloride
Chemical Formula Nacl

According to the data available for evaluation, a classification according to the hazard
categories and national regulations is not necessary.

In case of accidental contact with the product
Proceed in accordance with:
Eye contact: wash with water
Ingestion (large quantities) consult a doctor if discomfort persists

Extinguishing agents adapt to the materials in the contour
Special risks any
Additional references fireproof

Cleaning collection procedure collect dry eliminate waste with lots of water
by sweeping and proceed with its removal

Handling: avoid eye contact.
Storage environment closed and dry avoid humidity
Recommended packaging polypropylene bag

Respiratory protection filter paper mask
Precise hand protection
Unnecessary eye protection
Private hygiene measures: hand washing at the end of work

Physical state solid
Color white winter
Odor toilet
Value pH ( 50g/lt ) 5 – 8
Melting point 800 ºC
Boiling point 1461 ºC
Density at 20 ºC 1.35 g/cm3
Solubility in water at 20 ºC 360 gr/lt


Chart Graph Placeholder

Stability stable
Conditions to avoid humidity
Incompatibility Water

Acute toxicity dl 50 (oral, rat): 3000 mg/kg
Additional information after eye contact: irritation after ingestion of large
amounts, nausea and vomiting
Complementary information toxic effects should not be expected if the handling is

Instability no
Persistence/degradable degradability
Effects on the environment without special observations
Additional information:
management ecological problems
should not be expected

Waste collection method: collect dry
proceed to pick it up by sweeping
eliminate waste with lots of water.
Elimination of packaging containers will be treated as
household waste or as recyclable material

Nch 2190 applicable brands without indications
No. UN No information
CAS number 7647-14-5

Applicable with international norms. German class of water pollution:
0 water-free compound
Applicable national standards Nch.2245: safety data sheet for
chemical products Nch. 382:
dangerous substances terminology
and classification Nch.2190:
dangerous substances Trademarks
Nch.2505: dangerous substances

Since the safety data sheet (SDS) is safety information, it cannot take into account all
possible situations for a specific workplace, so the HDS is only part of a risk prevention
Considering that the use of this information and the product is beyond the control of
the supplier Sociedad Punta de Lobos SA, does not assume any responsibility for this
concept. The conditions of safe use are the user’s obligation.

ANNEX 3: ROADMAG Safety Sheet
Made according to NCh 2245 of. 93.

Commercial name of the product RoadMag
Provider Sales of Magnesio Limitada (SALMAG LTDA.)
Matrix house Sector La Negra S/N, Lots 1 and 2, Box H
Branch office The Trovador 4285, Floor 4, Las Condes
Telephone/Fax (2) 425 2433/(2) 425 2434
Emergency number ( 5 5 ) 3 4 1 5 0 0/(55) 264479
Website www.salmag.com

This chemical is a substance, according to the NCh 2245 Of. 93, obtained by the
precipitation of crystals as a result of the evaporation of a brine in a natural state.
Chemical name Hexahydrate Magnesium Chloride
Chemical formula MgCl2.6H2O
Major ingredients:
Chlorine 29.0-32.8%
Magnesium 10.0% -12.8%
Water 50.0% – 55.0%
Minor ingredients:
Sodium 0.5-2.8%
Sulfate 0.0-2.0%
Potassium 0.3-3.8%
Lithium 0.2-1.1%
Boron 0.1-0.5%
Synonyms Bischofite, Magnesium Salt
CAS No. 7791-18-6
Unit No. Not established
Specific use of the product
Dust emission control agent and stabilizer for unpaved roads. The product is applied
diluted in water.

Label mark according to risk prevention norm (NCh1411/4.Of78) HEALTH = 1.
Classification of risks of the chemical according to the hazardous substances
standard (NCh382.Of89).
a) Negative effects for the health of people
– Effects of acute overexposure (for once) Irritation of skin and eyes.
– Inhalation
Inhalation of dust in suspension can irritate the mouth, nose and other tissues
of the respiratory system and cause coughing and sneezing. The symptoms are
usually relieved when the exposure to the product ends. Inhalation of
decomposition fumes (above 116 ° C) can cause metallic fever. The symptoms
of this fever are chills, cough, fatigue, chest pain, muscle pain and an increase
in white blood cells.
– Skin contact Overexposure may cause irritation and allergies. Prolonged or
repeated exposures can cause dermatitis (red and dry skin). Skin absorption is
not a common route of exposure with the product.
– Eye contact May irritate the eyes; The symptoms are pain, excessive tears and
– Ingestion: Ingestion is not a common route of occupational exposure. Acute
ingestion of this product may cause abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea;
however, if removal by intestinal blockage or any other reason is impeded, this
product may cause central nervous system depression, lack of reflex response,
hypocalcemia (calcium deficiency in the blood) Effects of chronic overexposure
(long term). May cause dermatitis (red and dry skin).
– Medical conditions that will be aggravated by exposure of the product. May
affect people with respiratory diseases, skin and the central nervous system.
b) Effects on the environment
Stable in the environment. The accidental loss of large quantities of product could
increase the salinity of bodies of water (temporarily altering their natural balance) and
soil salinity, altering the development of vegetation.
c) Specific risks
Heated at decomposition temperature (116-118°C) emits corrosive vapor of HCl and
magnesium compounds. Heated at 300°C emits toxic fumes of chlorine gas. This
product is not compatible with strong oxidants and 2 – peroxycarboxylic furanic acid.

– Inhalation:
Give fresh air, if not breathing give artificial respiration to help vital functions.
– Skin contact:
Wash with plenty of water.
The victim should seek immediate medical attention if adverse effects occur.
– Eye contact:
Wash eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, use sufficient force to
open the eyelids. Have the victim perform eye movements. The victim should
seek immediate medical attention if adverse effects occur.
– Ingestion:
Do not induce vomiting, unless directed by medical personnel.
If the person is conscious, wash the victim’s mouth with water.
Do not give fluids (milk, water) to someone who is unconscious, convulsing, or
unable to swallow. If vomiting occurs, place the patient leaning forward or to the
left (head down, if possible) to maintain and prevent aspiration.
– Conditions aggravated by exposure:
May affect people with respiratory diseases, skin and the central nervous
– Notes for the treating doctor:
Treat the symptoms and eliminate overexposure.

– Extinguishing agents
Dry chemical powder, CO2, foam or any agent class “ABC”
– Special procedures for fighting fires:
If possible, firefighters should control the flow of water to prevent possible
contamination. When participating in a fire, this product can decompose and
produce irritating smoke and toxic gases (magnesium compounds, hydrochloric
– Personal protective equipment for firefighting Self-contained breathing
apparatus, goggles and protective equipment.

– Emergency measures to take if there is spillage of the product Remove the
product from the affected area and protect people. Contain all spilled product in
a demarcated area. In case the product spills on some type of pavement:
Suspend transit and dry off as much product as possible; Then, proceed to wash
the pavement with plenty of water in order to completely eliminate any remaining
– Personal protective equipment to attack the emergency Class C equipment:
Rubber and nitrile gloves on latex gloves, chemical resistant clothing and shoes,
helmet and mask with particulate filter. Self-contained breathing equipment
should be used in situations where the oxygen level is below 19.5% or is
– Precautions for the environment: Avoid spills to courses or bodies of surface
water and / or infiltration to superficial groundwater.
– Methods of cleaning: Aspiration of the particles or sweep of these. Washing with
waste water after aspiration or sweeping in case of spillage on the roadway of
a paved road.

Technical recommendations and precautions to be taken:
As with all chemicals, prevent this product from coming into direct contact with the
person who manipulates it.
Wash your hands carefully after handling this product. Do not eat, do not drink, do not
smoke while handling this product.
Use ventilation and other engineering controls to minimize potential exposure to this
Recommendations on safe handling All employees who handle this product should be
trained to handle it safely. Store away from incompatible materials (See Section 10).
Read the instructions provided before use. Storage:
The product does not require special containers. In dry climates, it can be stored in
bulk. In humid climates, given its high solubility in water, it must be protected from
atmospheric humidity and rain.

Measures to reduce the possibility of exposure:
When there is a possibility that an employee’s eyes may be exposed to the product, a
source of washing water should be maintained in the immediate vicinity of the work
Weighted permissible limits (LPP) and absolute (LPA) are not established.
Respiratory protection:
Respiratory protection is not required when using this product. With oxygen levels
below 19.5% or unknown use self-contained breathing apparatus.
In the event of fire or exposure of the product to high temperatures, toxic gases may
be generated (see section 10). Protective gloves: Latex gloves or neoprene for routine
Eye protection Eyeglasses Other body protection equipment: ordinary cloth protective
suit, rubber boots.

Physical state: Solid at room temperature
How it is presented: Aggregate of translucent crystals
Color: White to yellowish white; colorless
Odor: Odorless
PH: Diluted by 1.5 product by 1
Water has a pH of 4.7
Melting temperature: Lose water at 100 ° C. If heated
quickly melts at 116 to 118 ° C
Boiling temperature: Decomposes to oxychloride
Flash point: Not established
Auto ignition temperature: Not established
explosivity (LEL and UEL): Not established
Flame propagation speed: Not established
Apparent Density: 0.85-0.9 Ton/m3 (Average)
Solubility: Soluble in water and alcohol.
Water solubility: 95 gr/100 ml (a 25°C).
Vapor pressure: Not established
Vapor density (air = 1): Not established
How to detect this substance: Appearance (white – yellow crystalline
product) can act as the only property that alerts you in case of an accidental spill.

Stable: Stability under normal handling and storage conditions. Conditions to avoid
Avoid mixing this product with incompatible chemicals. In sectors of low humidity
(climates such as northern Chile) the product can be stored unpacked for considerable
periods, which is not possible in more humid areas (central and southern Chile) due to
the large capacity of water absorption of the product.
Materials incompatible with the product: This product is not compatible with strong
oxidants and 2 – peroxycaboxyl furanic acid Hazardous products from the
decomposition of the product. Heated at decomposition temperature (116-118°C)
decomposes in magnesium compounds and HCl vapor.
Hazardous combustion products: Heating to above 300°C emits toxic fumes of chlorine
Polymerization: hazard Does not occur.

Chronic toxicity This product has no chronic toxicity. According to article 7 of the
regulation on sanitary management of hazardous waste, magnesium chloride is not
listed in category II of the aforementioned regulation. Nor does it contain metals
classified as chronic toxic substances in the aforementioned regulation, since these
are in total, in quantities less than 0.1%. Acute toxicity: This product has no acute
toxicity, according to Article 8 of the regulation on sanitary management of hazardous
waste, LD50 oral and rats the 8100 mg/kg.
Local effects This material can irritate the skin and eyes.
Sensitivity to the product: No sensitivity to this material due to prolonged and repetitive
use is known.
Agent suspected of cancer: The components of this product are not carcinogenic
according to the following exams: NTP, IARC, OSHA, CAL/OSHA.
Information on reproductive toxicity: No mutagenic, embryotoxic, teratogenic or
reproductive effects are known Adverse effects of this product in humans.
ACGIH biological exposure index: Currently, there are no biological exposure indexes
ACGIH (BEI) determined for the components of this product.

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