Reference Library

Soilworks products are the industry’s top standard due to our insistence on creating high performance soil stabilization and dust control products that stand up to rigorous testing – both in the lab and in the field. Our commitment to quality and performance has led to our involvement and testing in hundreds of real-world situations. The following library of reports, presentations, specifications, approvals and other similar documents provide you, our customer, the transparency and dependable assurance that is expected from Soilworks.

Common Mistakes In Improved Surface Trails – S and S Trail Services (TPD1704045)

Common Mistakes In Improved Surface Trails

Picture Placeholder

Surface Material Choices



l  Wood Chips


l  Decomposed Granite


l  Road Base


l  Milled Asphalt


l  Crushed Stone/Concrete



Type: Wood Chips

Problems: Floats away!



  • •Hampers drainage



  • •Not user friendly



  • •Promotes plant growth


Decomposed Granite

Angular Rock Theoretically locks together

Will not stick on more than 5% slopes

Can’t withstand shear forces

Expensive but looks pretty

Much more stable with binder



Road Base


Compacts Very Well


Not as pretty a material


Handles loads and shear forces well Relatively inexpensive


Picture Placeholder



Milled Asphalt


l  Already Contains Binding Agents

l  Compaction is easy

l  May not be inert

l  Can be used on steeper slopes.



Crushed Stone/Concrete

 Picture Placeholder



What Elements from natural surface trail design apply?


What Elements Differ?




Must keep the Half Rule

Grade Reversals are necessary

Water is your biggest enemy


Picture Placeholder

Picture Placeholder




Slopes should remain as shallow as possible


5% is about Maximum


Raised Causeway with a crowned tread can give the best results

Picture Placeholder


Lets Talk Compaction!


l  Compaction is a must

l  Mechanical Compaction is superior

l  Moisture is critical

l  Binders such as Soil Lock or Gorilla-Snot®


Weed Barriers?

Picture Placeholder


Picture Placeholder


Prevents Binding of materials between layers


Shows through quickly if design aspects violated


Can act as an accelerant for water




S&S Trail Services, L.L.C.


Professional Trail Building







512 Eberhart Lane #1303

Austin, TX 78745


www.sstrails.com Ryan@sstrails.com


Outdoor Supervision Only

Picture Placeholder

Large Build Projects

Picture Placeholder





  • •Trail dimensions
  • •Construction technique
    • •Time and cost
    • •Labor pool



  • •Structures needed





Educated Trail Workers vs. Non




l  Stake Holder Buy In

l  Empowering Volunteers

l  Spreading Trail Building Knowledge

l  Lower Cost for Manager





l  Land Manager may or may not be working

l  Trail Professionals Need Weekends!


l  Rain, Rain, Go AWAY!


Promises, Promises!

l  What happened to our volunteers?

l  How to combat/plan for no shows

l  How to plan workdays


Work Quality


l  Volunteers may take short cuts

l  May not uphold standards as readily

l  May Not be as concerned with liability

l  May not take all safety precautions

l  Some volunteers do great work, but not all have a high level of experience

Picture Placeholder

More Work!!



End Result

Picture Placeholder




S&S Trail Services, L.L.C. www.sstrails.com

Staff:   Ryan         713.446.6610


Susan         713.448.0161





Scientifically Proven Benefits of Exercise






  • •Longevity
  • •Cardiovascular health
  • •Cholesterol lowering effect
    • •Prevention and control of diabetes
    • •Reduced risk of stroke
    • •Muscle strength
    • •Bone strength
    • •Lowering of blood pressure
    • •Weight control
    • •New brain cell development, improved cognition, and memory
    • •Better night sleep
    • •Exercise is a powerful antidepressant


Picture Placeholder


S&S Trails Staff


25+ combined years of experience

Picture Placeholder

Susan Stormer

Picture Placeholder


Ryan Spates





l  Trail user

l  Trail Builder



l  Trail user

l  Trail builder



Cognitive and neurological benefits of exercise


l  Physical exercise leads to significant improvements in:

–      Memory ability

–      Critical thinking skills

–      Balanced mood

–      Increased learning potential

–      Finding is more pronounced in people over age 60


l  Contact with nature can

–       decrease mental fatigue and accidents

–       enhance mood, concentration and problem solving

l  Exposure to wildlife, horseback riding, hiking, camping and farms can be therapeutic for a variety of health conditions in adults and children

l  An entire movement has begun to connect kids with the healing power of nature

–   No Child Left Inside legislation (2008)

l  Experts emphasize that you don’t have to trek to wilderness preserves to enjoy nature’s benefits– simply strolling in a city park or tending a rooftop garden can make a difference


Step 3: Determine the trail users

Trail Runners



Mountain Bikers


Step 4: Sustainable Trails

  • • Handle high traffic and designated use


  • • Withstand erosion


  • • Mitigate potential user conflict through good design


  • • Long term management plan


Trail erosion is caused by a combination of trail users, water and gravity.


Water has the potential to do more damage than any other trail user.


What can go wrong?


Fall Line:

The steepest route of descent down a slope.             Water flowing down a hillside will travel along the fall line.


Rolling Contour Trail



  • •Built on the sideslope
  • •Sustainable grades
  • •Incorporates grade reversals
  • •Outsloped trail tread
  • •Facilitates sheet flow


The Contour Trail

  • • Erosion resistant and low maintenance
  • •Keeps users on the trail
  • •Keeps water off the trail
    • •Sustainable yet fun trails are the best way to achieve the balance between resource protection and user recreation


Don’t Rush!


Complete the form below to download this document now.