University of NM Path and Paving Solutions Increasing Farmstead Accessibility - Natl Training Workshop
PATH AND PAVING SOLUTIONS: INCREASING FARMSTEAD ACCESSIBILITY
CARLA WILHITE, OTD, OTR/L
UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO-NEW MEXICO AGRABILITY PROJECT PARTNER NATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP
TUESDAY, MARCH 26, 2019
SESSION LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
- Session participants will identify the most recent path and paving materials available to increase farmstead accessibility.
- Session participants will be familiar with basic terminology to describe terrain and construction.
- Session participants will view product solutions for paths and paving
- Session participants will discuss cost estimates and justification for environmental modifications to pathways and walkways.
Farms and ranches have variable terrain features that make accessibility difficult
- Standing water
- Sandy conditions
- Large stones, stumps
- Ruts left by vehicles and machinery
- Accessibility: design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities that ensures “direct access” (i.e. unassisted) and “indirect access” (i.e. compatibility with person’s assistive technology. (Wikipedia,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility)
- Usability: the extent to which a product (device, service, or environment) can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use.
- Universal Design: Universal design is the design of buildings, products or environments to make them accessible to all people, regardless of age, disability or other factors.
- Built environment: Human-surroundings that provide a setting for human activity
DEFINITION OF TERRAIN
- Terrain/Relief: vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface
- Defined: Physically, terrain is the “lay of the land”. Usually expressed in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Affected by surface water distribution and flow of water.
- Depressions: sunken or depressed area below the surrounding area; form by various mechanisms
- Blowouts (erosion)
- Subsidence (erosion/settling)
- Sinkholes (collapse)
- Elevations: a height above or below a fixed point
- Expansive soils- earth that swells and contracts depending on the amount of water that is present
- Slope/gradient: a line that describes the direction and steepness of a line
- Calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line
- Aka: Rise/run
- Aggregate- A mixture of sand and stone and a major component of concrete.
- Backfill- the replacement of excavated earth into a trench around or against a basement /crawl space foundation wall
- Board foot- A unit of measure for lumber equal to 1 inch thick by 12 inches wide by 12 inches long
- Cement- the gray powder that is the "glue" in concrete. Portland cement.
- Concrete- the mixture of Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water.
- Cubic yard/foot-measure of length, width, and depth of a rectangle
- Egress- A means of exiting a building
- Exposed aggregate finish- A method of finishing concrete which washes the cement/sand mixture off the top layer of the aggregate - usually gravel
- Drain- 3" or 4" perforated plastic pipe that goes around the perimeter (either inside or outside) of a foundation wall (before backfill) and collects and diverts ground water away
- Faced concrete- to finish the front and all vertical sides of a concrete porch, step(s), or patio.
- Field measure- to take measurements in the place itself instead of using the blueprint/topo/landscape design
- Flatwork- common word for concrete floors, driveways, basements, and sidewalks
- Form- temporary structure erected to contain concrete during placing and initial hardening
- Frost line- the depth of frost penetration in soil and/or the depth at which the earth will freeze and swell.
- Grade- ground level, or the elevation at any given point. Also the work of leveling dirt.
- Level- true horizontal.
- Pressure-treated wood- lumber that has been saturated with a preservative. Aka: treated lumber
- Lumens- unit of measure for total light output. The amount of light falling on a surface of one square foot.
- Manufacturer's specifications- the written installation and/or maintenance instructions which are developed by the manufacturer of a product and which may have to be followed in order to maintain the product warrantee.
- Masonry- stone, brick, concrete, hollow-tile, concrete block, or other similar building units or materials; joined with mortar
- Nosing- the projecting edge of a molding or drip or the front edge of a stair tread.
- Paver, paving- materials—commonly masonry—laid down to make a firm, even surface
- Plan view- drawing of a structure with the view from overhead, looking down.
- Road base- aggregate mixture of sand and stone
- Screed, concrete- to level off concrete to the correct elevation during a concrete pour.
- Settlement- shifts in a structure, usually caused by freeze-thaw cycles underground
- Stair landing- A platform between flights of stairs or at the termination of a flight of stairs. Often used when stairs change direction. Normally no less than 3 ft. X 3 ft. Square.
- Subgrade-native soil that is graded and compacted to provide an even surface to support the sidewalk; should have uniform stiffness to avoid differing frost or expansion characteristics. In some cases, concrete is placed directly on the subgrade, but it is strongly recommended that a granular sub-base be placed between the native soil and the concrete slab.
ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS FOR TRAILS/PATHS
NATIONAL CENTER FOR ACCESSIBILITY NATIONAL TRAILS SURFACE STUDY REPORT, 2017 AUTHORS: MONTEMBAULT & YORK
- • Must meet firmness & stability standards for wheelchairs
- Firmness: resistance to deformation/indentation
- Stability: resists change from contaminants or applied forces
- • Eleven materials studied in report:
- Crushed stone
- Packed soils
- Natural materials bonded to synthetic materials
- Found differences for different climates/regions
- All surfaces required maintenance/repair over time
ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS FOR TRAILS/PATHS
NATIONAL CENTER FOR ACCESSIBILITY NATIONAL TRAILS SURFACE STUDY REPORT, 2014
- FIRMNESS & STABILITY
- Measured by mechanical instrument; Rotational penetrometer
- BEST RESULTS:
- ¾ Inch limestone aggregate
- Klingstone 400 soil stabilizer
- Stalock stabilizer
- No human testers/wheelchair users involved
- Cost comparison not completed
- Long-term maintenance costs not conducted
RANGE OF MATERIALS AVAILABLE TO INCREASE ACCESSIBILITY
SMALL SURFACE MATERIALS
WOOD FIBERS GRAVEL
- Combines natural LEED certified materials with synthetic underlayment (geotextiles)
- Materials developed for playgrounds, but could be used for pathways
- Materials are controlled size and type of
wood fibers: engineered wood fibers
- Different installation specs for desert/wetter climates
- Systems available that include drainage and
- Cons: Cost not publically available, must call for quote (advertised as $1.50 to $10 per square foot)
- Polyurethane soil stabilizer
- Inert when cured
- No mixing required
- Binds with aggregate
- Natural appearance
- Cost: $2-3 sq ft material
- Cons: application hazards for respiratory, skin, eye; flammable; must properly dispose or store of left-over chemical
- Noticeable washout in areas at 2 years; must be resurfaced/re-treated
- Polymer bonds with decomposed granite
and other materials
- Fills pores and locks together
- Remains flexible
- Resists weathering
- Can be formulated for different regions and soil conditions; equestrian applications too
- Cons: proprietary mixing; costs not publicly available; long-term maintenance costs not known
OTHER POLYMER BASED PRODUCTS
- M10 & M50
- TECHNISOIL G5
- TOP-SHIELD (TS-100)
MODULAR SOLUTIONS http://www.accessrec.com/b
- ACCESS REC mats, decks, & surfaces
- Features of deck:
- High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
- Chemical and weather resistant capabilities
- UV protected
- Can be installed permanently or temporarily
- Can withstand vehicle loads up to 8 tons per axle
- Easy to maintain and clean
- sustainable to temperature extremes
- • will not warp, rot, crack, or delaminate
- anti slip patterns
- Cons: Heavy, one panel weighs 69 lbs. & cost
- Non slip surface cellular structure
- Reduce joint and bone impact while walking on hard surfaces
- Can be used as an entry mat
- Allows for dirt, debris and water to fall to the bottom of the mat due to their cellular structure
- Wheelchair accessibility
- Turns grass into a wheelchair accessible surface
- Cons: Cost @ 30sq ft. (approx.
10’x3’ path)=$384 on top of
existing sod ($12.80 sq. ft)
- MISTER BOARDWALK
- Can order in pressure treated (PT), cypress, teak, Trex
- Can order corner/turn pieces
- 20 year work life (according to manufacturer)
- Can be permanently installed or
- Cons: 23” x 12 ft. roll = $111 of PT (cheaper than other modular though)
- • Features
- • 100% recyclable HDPE plastic are UV and weather resistant
- Resilient to absorbing liquids and
- Permanent or mobile applications
- Each panel 5’ x 6’ long (86lb. Each)
- Cons: cost (60” x 33’ section =
- WOODCARPET BONDED I SYSTEM
- Installed on top of surfaces of gravel
- Drains well, pervious to water
- Impact resistant
- Looks natural, but is “synthetic”
- Will probably “mix” surfaces depending on applications (i.e. Modular around entrances, aggregate on pathways); must design transitions adequately
- Costs may increase with use of proprietary connectors, borders, geotextile underlayment
- Arrangements for maintenance is necessary
- “Bargain basement” materials to build pathways:
- Used dimensional lumber
- Pallet slats
- Vehicle use? Vehicle crossing?
- ADA guidance can help, but does it need to be followed for custom applications?
- Who will design it? Professional? Home-designed?
- What kind of environment? Weather, temperatures, terrain?
- How much will it cost? Materials, labor, predicted wastage
- How long will it take?
- Who will carry out the work? Family, volunteers, contractor, vendor?
- Permits? Contracts?
- Questions to ask potential contractors:Https://www.Homeadvisor.Com/ r/15-questions-to-ask- contractors/
- Https://www.Aarp.Org/livable- communities/info-2014/7-steps-to- hiring-a-contractor.Html
- UNITED STATES ACCESS BOARD: Https://www.Access-board.Gov/guidelines-and- standards/recreation-facilities/outdoor-developed-areas/background/committee-report/trails
- NATIONAL CENTER ON ACCESSIBILLITY: http://www.ncaonline.org/